Despite decades of advances, the gender gap remains wide. Women are still under-represented in senior positions and among entrepreneurs. That helps to explain why the median female wage is 80% of that of men, lower than the OECD average.
词汇：be under-represented 在高层职位女性占少数/人数不足;
衔接：despite+n. ;that 指代;why 宾语从句;
Ms Boushey argues that America’s labour-market troubles are largely the result of its failure to grapple with changes in family structures. Women once stayed at home,cooking meals, ironing clothes and looking after children while their husbands went out to work.
词汇：grapple with sth=solve 努力解决某事;
At the start of the 1950s only about one-third of American women worked, compared with almost 90% of men. Today 57% of women are in work, while the share of men is just under 70%.
词汇：sb work=sb be in work;
This shift has added trillions to economic output, and allowed women who might otherwise have been stuck at home to start companies, invent new products, advance the course of science or simply to earn a living of their own. It also transformed life within the home.
衔接：this shift 指代相比从前更对女性出来就业;who 定语从句;also 并列;
词汇：be stuck at home=stay at home 指代在家忙于家务;advance sth 推动发展;
As women joined the paid labour force in increasing numbers, more household responsibilities were shoehorned into the hours outside work. (Although men do more in the home than they used to, women still carry out the bulk of domestic duties.) That may in turn push them to give up formal work.
词汇：join the paid labour force=work;shoehorn(n.鞋拔，此处为v.硬塞：家务只能挤在空余的时间进行)
On the face of things, new government rules and regulations are unnecessary.
可作为主题句sth is necessary;
Boushey therefore wants America’s government to grant workers more paid time to care for new babies or ailing relatives; to allow greater flexibility in working time;and to provide greater support for the education of pre-school children.
词汇：grant sth 保证;ailing 生病的;flexibility 灵活(工作时间)
Better family leave policies should not only improve the lives of struggling families but also boost workers’ productivity and cut firms’ costs.
The cost to employers of replacing workers who leave (for any reason, from a new job to parenthood) could amount to between15% and 20% of annual pay, even in occupations paying less than $30,000 per year. Doing good for workers should,therefore, be good for businesses and for the economy.
The cost of hiring replacements ought to give hard-pressed employees—those who are pregnant, say, or who have to care for elderly parents—room to bargain for better treatment.
Other research suggests that more flexible work rules reduce absenteeism and increase productivity.
词汇：struggling families 不富裕的家庭;提高boost productivity=increase;cut costs=reduce costs ; replacing workers 用定语从句描述代替休假的员工=replacements;reduce absenteeism 灵活的工作制度减少缺勤
Broad social insurance could help smaller companies to share the financial load: they would pay into a fund, from which they could draw when employees go on parentalleave.