文章题目Typography Introduction of Printed books
题型判断 4+填空 9
文章大意活字印刷的历史。两个德国人去 Italy 的一个地方，后来又搬去了罗马，之 后很多商人就开始注意到印刷的潜在经济价值。
1. Early books have many errors – F
2. 活字印刷里就记得在 M**某个地方只有富人才买得起书– T
3. 刚开始 printing 的书，插图 illustration – T
4. Business man in Roma begin to notice the value of printing can make money F
6-7. Assembling Fonts: sheet of paper
8. 第 1 版是用来更正错误的 proof reading
9. types……pages are in right sequence
10. Local newspapers 做宣传
11-12. 问两种印刷方法的单词: binding and simulating
13. They lived very near to the book industry
文章题目Fluoridation in the water
重复年份20160312 20140719 20130119
题型选择题 3+判断 6+句子填空 5
1. How hot is the area A
2. People should not be forced to take compulsory medication
3. To demonstrate that scientists’ finding will be influenced by social factors
5. Science should not decide policy
6. Scientific and social factors should be separated No
7. Many sociologist ignore S’s study
8. S work was not emphasized by sicnetists outside the northern America NG
9. Both supporters and opponents have made valid argument. YES
10. Science is objective and unbiased
11. Can be affected by social factors
12. Scientific discovery cannot be understood at first
13. Cautious action is not necessary
14. People should have the right to choose
文章题目Undergraduate students study dramas
Main article: Medieval theatre
By the medieval period, the mummers' plays had developed, a form of early street theatre associated with the Morris dance, concentrating on themes such as Saint George and the Dragon and Robin Hood. These were folk tales re-telling old stories, and the actors travelled from town to town performing these for their audiences in return for money and hospitality.
Renaissance: Elizabethan and Jacobean periods
The period known as the English Renaissance, approximately 1500—1660, saw a flowering of the drama and all the arts. The two candidates for the earliest comedy in English Nicholas Udall's Ralph Roister Doister (c. 1552) and the anonymous Gammer Gurton's Needle (c. 1566), belong to the 16th century. During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and then James I (1603–25), in the late 16th and early 17th century, a London-centred culture, that was both courtly and popular, produced great poetry and drama. The English playwrights were intrigued by Italian model: a conspicuous community of Italian actors had settled in London. The linguist and lexicographer John Florio (1553–1625), whose father was Italian, was a royal language tutor at the Court of James I, and a possible friend of and influence on William Shakespeare, had brought much of the Italian language and culture to England. He was also the translator of Montaigne into English. The earliest Elizabethan plays includes Gorboduc (1561) by Sackville and Norton and Thomas Kyd's (1558–94) revenge tragedy The Spanish Tragedy (1592), that influenced Shakespeare's Hamlet.
17th and 18th centuries
Aphra Behn was the first professional English woman playwright.
During the Interregnum 1649—1660, English theatres were kept closed by the Puritans for religious and ideological reasons. When the London theatres opened again with the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, they flourished under the personal interest and support of Charles II. Wide and socially mixed audiences were attracted by topical writing and by the introduction of the first professional
actresses (in Shakespeare's time, all female roles had been played by boys). New genres of the Restoration were heroic drama, pathetic drama, and Restoration comedy. Notable heroic tragedies of this period include John Dryden's All for Love (1677) and Aureng-zebe (1675), and Thomas Otway's Venice Preserved (1682). The Restoration plays that have best retained the interest of producers and audiences today are the comedies, such as George Etherege's The Man of Mode (1676), William Wycherley's The Country Wife (1676), John Vanbrugh's The Relapse (1696), and William Congreve's The Way of the World (1700). This period saw the first professional woman playwright, Aphra Behn, author of many comedies including The Rover (1677). Restoration comedy is famous or notorious for its sexual explicitness, a quality encouraged by Charles II (1660–1685) personally and by the rakish aristocratic ethos of his court.
A change came in the Victorian era with a profusion on the London stage of farces, musical burlesques, extravaganzas and comic operas that competed with Shakespeare productions and serious drama by the likes of James Planché and Thomas William Robertson. In 1855, the German Reed Entertainments began a process of elevating the level of (formerly risqué) musical theatre in Britain that culminated in the famous series of comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan and were followed by the 1890s with the first Edwardian musical comedies. W. S. Gilbert and Oscar Wilde were leading poets and dramatists of the late Victorian period. Wilde's plays, in particular, stand apart from the many now forgotten plays of Victorian times and have a much closer relationship to those of the Edwardian dramatists such as Irishman George Bernard Shaw and Norwegian Henrik Ibsen.