在雅思写作考试中,大家需要围绕一个中心观点进行论证,需要有一个明确的主题,那么雅思写作主体怎么论证呢?今天小编为大家分享一些雅思写作主体论证的方法,比如说举例论证,这是比较常见的一种论证方法,那么还有哪些论证方法呢?一起来看一下。

  (一)、举例论证(Exemplification)

  Sampler 1:亚洲国家正以惊人的速度变得西方化.以中国为例,当青少年去看电影的时候,他们一般都选择好莱坞大片而不选择国产电影.

  范文 1:The Asian countries are getting westernized at a staggering rate. Take China for example, when youngsters go to the movies, it is common for them to choose Hollywood blockbusters over domestic films.

  Sampler 2:谈大学教育的两大功能:就业与求知

  范文 2:To begin with, it is really helpful for university students to be taught some job-related skills that have already become a major focus of higher education. A typical example can be found inthe effort to develop their interpersonal skills now required by a growing number of companies as one of the most essential qualities of any job candidate.

  句型:An interesting / striking / typical example of„ is provided by the story of sb. who…

  Sampler 3:动物是人类的朋友.例如,海豚经常从沉船里营救船员.

  范文 3:Animals are human’s companions. To illustrate, dolphins often rescue sailors from sinking ships.

  Sampler 4:大量证据表明,破裂家庭的子女出现情感、行为障碍或触犯法律的可能性是完整家庭子女的 2~3 倍。

  范文 4:A large body of evidence proves that children from broken families are two or three times as likely as those in intact families to have emotional or behavioral problems or get into trouble with the law.

  Sampler 5:个人教育与社会发展之间的关系(特别是)

  范文 5:Decent education for every individual contributes significantly to the overall well-being of society, especially/particularly when their personal achievements amount to a driving force of social progress.

  Sampler 6:学生的学习压力(特别强调)

  范文 6:It is not uncommon that school teachers nowadays tend to exert undue academic pressure on young students, with particular emphasis on consistently good performance in all sorts of tests and examinations.

  Sampler 7:这点可以通过 „ 来说明

  范文 7:It is evident from the information supplied that male are far more likely to commit crimes.This point can be illustrated/emphasized by the fact that male offenders accounted for 96% of prison inmates.

  (二)、引用论证

  思路:引用“科学证据、研究成果、学术刊物、统计数据”

  Sample :员工和雇主能否都获益于“在家上班” 范文:There is some incontrovertible to suggest that both employees and employers can benefit a lot from the growing trend of telecommuting. According to a recent article published in the world-famous Nature Journal, while the average telecommuter can save a considerable portion of their travel expenses, it is estimated that their companies can cut operational costs by almost one third if 25% of the staff are allowed to work at home.

  句型:

  l According to a recent article published in the world-famous Time Magazine, …

  l According to a recent survey conducted by a group of American researchers of the University of Chicago, …

  (三)、递进论证

  模板:To begin with → In the second place → Lastly

  Sample 1:科学研究应由政府还是私人机构开展

  范文 1: There are many reasons for entrusting scientific research to the governments rather than private companies.

  [支持 1]To begin with, many large-scale and long-term research projects require substantial funding that only national governments can afford.

  [支持 2]In the second place, first-rate scientists who enjoy international reputation are largely concentrated in government-sponsored research institutions.

  [支持 3]Lastly, since most private companies are profit-orientated, the findings and conclusions from their research are more likely to be skewed or biased and even represent the interests of a small group.

  剖析:

  支持 1:大型、长期的研究项目需要大量的资金,通常只有政府有这样的财力;

  支持 2:一流科学家大量集中在由政府资助的研究机构中;

  支持 3:私人机构大都以利益为导向,故而得出的结果可能是歪曲或带有偏见的,甚至代表某些小团体的利益。

  注意: 不要用 Last but not least,否则引起考官反感,直接用 Lastly 即可!

  句型:(适用说明缺点)

  l One major problems/advantage/measure of

  l Another big risk/benefit/sound approach is that„„

  Sample 2:由广泛使用手机所带来的社会、健康和技术问题

  范文 2:It has become increasingly apparent that the widespread use of cell phones gives rise to a number of problems in modern society.

  [支持1]One major problems of using mobile devices too regularly is that they are posing a potential threat to human health in form of the microwave radiation emitted.

  [支持 2]Another big risk is that cell phone technology is often manipulated and even abused to extract and sell users’ personal information to those unscrupulous marketing companies.

  [支持 3]Furthermore, there is a third undesirable development: Since cell phones can provide criminals with increased mobility and accessibility to critical data, the number of unsolved crimesis steadily on the rise..

  剖析:

  支持 1:健康层面 - 微波辐射对健康构成潜在的危害

  支持 2:技术方面 - 技术滥用,个人信息被作为商品卖

  支持 3:社会层面 – 给犯罪分子作案增加了便利,导致悬案增加

  释义:

  pose a potential treat(risks) to 构成潜在的危害(威胁)

  unscrupulous 肆无忌惮的

  undesirable 不受欢迎的,可能招致麻烦的

  unsolved crimes 悬案

  (四)、对比论证(Comparison and Contrast)

  思路:正面思维枯竭时,可以换位思考(“逆向思维”),通过 A 烘托出 B 的优/缺点

  题目:探讨老师应该教会学生辩明是否?还是只负责课程教授而不管其他方面

  提纲:

  正面论述 1 道德品质的教育比知识更重要(递进法)

  正面论述 2 良好的行为可以促进学生的学习进步(递进法)

  正面论述 3 最新的研究证据表明:优秀的学生往往两面俱佳(引用法)

  反面论述 1 放弃道德行为的教育会产生许多问题(对比法)

  范例:teaching students how to distinguish right from wrong is matter of utmost importance in education, especially during their formative years.

  【支持 1】To begin with, such moral education is often regarded by most teachers as much more important than teaching them academic knowledge.

  【支持 2】In addition, being fully aware of the difference between right and wrong effectively improves their own behavior, which can in turn facilitate their learning process.

  【支持 3】According to a recent study conducted by a team of Canadian researchers of University of Toronto, many top students in high school not only perform well academically, but they also generally show decent behavior in a consistent way.

  【支持 4】In sharp contrast, not providing young students with a proper moral education is a sure recipe for disaster because a number of serious problems may result from this failure.

  释义:

  facilitate their learning process 促进学习(facilitate 便利、促进)

  a sure recipe for disaster 灾难性的后果

  (五)、因果认证(Cause and effect)

  思路:分为两类①讲事物原因;②事情结果。

  模板 1:Be 动词 + 过去分词 + 介词

  l be (directly) linked to ….

  l be (strongly) related to …

  l be (unquestionably) tied to…

  l be (closely) connected with …

  l be (largely) associated with …

  模板 2:

  l as

  l since

  l due to

  l owing to

  l hence

  l thus

  l therefore

  l as a consequence/result/consequently

  l thereby:以此达到„目的(不能用在句首,而且后面是加动名词)

  题目 1:生态问题正在被恶化,因此,我们必须采取措施解决环境问题.

  范文 1:The ecological problems are being aggravated; therefore, it is imperative that we take measures to combat the pollution of the environment.

  题目 2:政府应该提高公众的环保意识,以此来促进可持续发展并且创造一个更适合人类生存的环境.

  范文 2:The government should raise the public awareness of environmental preservation, therebypromoting sustainable development and creating a more livable environment.

  模板 3:

  l lead to „ (从句)

  l give rise to „ (从句)

  l contribute to „ (从句)

  l result in „ (从句)

  题目 3:Many people use distance-learning programs (study material post, TV, Internet, etc) to study at home, but some think that it cannot bring as benefits as attending college or university. To what extent to you agree or disagree with this opinion?

  解析:属于半支持半反对类型:

  主体段一:提出反对理由 写 distance learning 的好处(Benefits)

  主体段二:提出支持理由 写 distance learning 的坏处之一(Problem1)

  主体段三:提出支持理由 写 distance learning 的坏处之二(Problem2)

  范文 3:(主体段二)

  【主题句】Despite the convenience and relatively low cost of distance learning, it would be wise for us to consider it downside.

  【支持 1】One of the biggest problems is that it cannot create an environment that is conducive to the students’ learning process, especially the much-needed interaction with their professors and classmates.

  【支持 2】This may result in a terrible sense of disconnection and even social isolation among the learners.

  【支持 3】In comparison, attending college or university is a more pleasant and exciting experience for young students as they can combine academic learning with a wide variety of social and extracurricular activities.

  备注: 本段写作模式为“1+3”,即一个主题句+三个支持句。

  【主题句】以 despite 为引导 的让步状语从句开始,总结主体段一中分析的好处,可视为“转折法;

  【支持 1】为“递 进法”;

  【支持 2】为“指代法”+“因果法”;

  【支持 3】采用了“对比法”。

  (六)、指代法

  思路:用词出现 this, that, these, those, it, they, such 等代词,与其他方法配合应用

  模板 1:This is clearly shown in the following example: „.(从句) +举例法

  题目 1:淡新闻报纸对人们思想的巨大影响→适用于传媒/网络类话题

  范文 1:When it comes to how public opinion is formed, newspapers are unquestionably one of the strongest powers. This is clearly shown in the following example: many high school students in America who take the SAT are in the habit of citing articles from a wide variety of influential newspapers in their writing.

  模板 2:This has already been proved by the case of „ +举例法

  题目 2:谈越来越多年轻人失业的社会问题

  范文 2:There is no denying that chronic youth joblessness is a contributing factor of social instability. This has already been proved by the case of increased criminal activities among unemployed or underemployed urban youngsters, many of whom even regard these wrongdoings as a way to make a living.

  (七)、转折法 套路:

  l However, „. 从句

  l Yet, „ 从句

  l Nevertheless, „ 从句

  l Nonetheless,„ 从句

  l In spite of,„.

  以上是小编为大家介绍的雅思写作主体怎么论证相关内容,希望大家通过练习进行掌握,帮助我们在考试中灵活的运用,丰富我们的写作答题内容。


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