在雅思阅读备考中,我们需要结合大量的练习来提升自己的阅读水平,其中比较常见的阅读方法包括扫读、略读以及精读等等。今天小编来为大家分享雅思阅读四大技巧,希望大家通过练习有效的练习提高自己的阅读水平,帮助我们在考试中有一个出色的表现。

  一、扫读(Scanning)

  扫读采用跳读的方法,其目的是把握文章细节,有针对性地从文章中迅速找出所需的关键信息。通过扫读技巧的运用,可以较快地定位问题的答案。在经过扫读定位答案后,必须对重点信息进行精读,从而找到正确答案。不要在无关信息或陌生单词词组上花费太多时间。在阅读考试过程中,时间把握是至关重要的。请参考以下题型:

  TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

  FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

  NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

  1. Michael Faraday was the first person to recognise Perkin's ability as a student of chemistry.

  2. Michael Faraday suggested Perkin should enrol in the Royal College of Chemistry.

  3. Perkin employed August Wilhelm Hofmann as his assistant.

  以上三题是雅思阅读中最常见的细节题(判断)。通过题干上的具体信息,包括人名,专业名词、机构和职业,我们可以通过扫读的方式在段落中迅速定位到这些几乎不会被替换的目标信息。请参考原文:Cambridge9 Test1 Passage1

  Paragraph 2

  ......As a student at the City of London School, Perkin became immersed in the study of chemistry. His talent and devotion to the subject were perceived by his teacher, Thomas Hall, who encouraged him to attend a series of lectures given by the eminent scientist Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution. Those speeches fired the young chemist's enthusiasm further, and he later went on to attend the Royal College of Chemistry, which he succeeded in entering in 1853, at the age of 15.

  Paragraph 3

  At the time of Perkin's enrolment, the Royal College of Chemistry was headed by the noted German chemistAugust Wilhelm Hofmann. Perkin's scientific gifts soon caught Hofmann's attention and, within two years, he became Hofmann's youngest assistant......

  通过扫读定位词我们将目标信息定位在文章的第二和第三段,并可以预判出前三题大致的信息分布位置,所以扫读技巧有助于考生们在答题时先获得“位置感”,从而避免了因无法找到信息而产生的紧张焦虑。

  二、略读(Skimming)

  略读采用速读的方法,其目的是为在最短时间内掌握文章段落的主旨大意,辨识文章结构,了解故事背景或论文的中心论点。略读技巧在雅思阅读考试中主要用于主旨配对题(List of Headings),尤其是在某些首尾句意思不明确,且无法首尾呼应的复杂段落中,这项技巧特别适用。请参考以下题型:Cambridge7 Test1 Passage2

  List of Headings

  i.Scientists' call for a revision of policy

  ii.An explanation for reduced water use

  iii.How a global challenge was met

  iv.Irrigation systems fall into disuse

  v.Environmental effects

  vi.The financial cost of recent technological improvements

  vii.The relevance to health

  viii.Addressing the concern over increasing populations

  ix.A surprising downward trend in demand for water

  x.The need to raise standards

  xi.A description of ancient water supplies

  Paragraph D

  The consequences of our water policies extend beyond jeopardising human health. Tens of millions of people have been forced to move from their homes – often with little warning or compensation – to make way for the reservoirs behind dams. More than 20% of all freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangeredbecause dams and water withdrawals have destroyed the free-flowing river ecosystems where they thrive. Certain irrigation practices degrade soil quality and reduce agricultural productivity. Groundwater aquifers[ underground stores of water] are being pumped down faster than they are naturally replenished in parts of India, China, the USA and elsewhere. And disputes over shared water resources have led to violence and continue to raise local, national and even international tensions.

  概括本篇文章D段的主旨颇有难度。开头前两句分别出现了health和Tens of millions of people的信息,很容易迷惑考生去选vii或viii两项,但是段落中根本没有重复出现关于health和people之类的信息,并且首尾句内容也不呼应;因此需要考生们把握整段的主要内容,即该段重复提到的相关信息。速度段落中间的细节信息,我们可以提取出重复信息,即鱼类、河流生态系统、土壤质量和地下含水层等几乎都受到破坏,所以通过对以上信息加以概括,我们就不难得出本段内容都涉及到环境(Environmental),故答案选v.Environmental effects。另外,我们在速度本段主要内容是会发现有irrigation practices这个细节信息,同时说到了灌溉系统对土壤的破坏,因此很容易误选iv.Irrigation systems fall into disuse这个看似很有道理的选项;但是这仅仅是环境影响的一部分,不能看作是概括整段的主旨,属于断章取义,以偏概全。

  总之,以上两种主流阅读技巧对考生们提出了不同的要求,即扫读定位细节信息,略读把握主旨大意。除此之外,我继续向大家介绍另外两种阅读“小技巧”,帮助考生们在答题时“随机应变”。

  三、指代关系(Matching References)

  指代词又称“纽带词”,它们连接了前后句,使句意串联了起来,从而起到了“承上启下”的作用。因此,在找到定位词的前提下,我们不妨关注其前后句中指代词的存在,另辟蹊径将文中的解题信息延伸下去。指代词的常见表达形式有it/this/that/these/those/some等。所以,我们来分析一下这些指代词在不同题型中发挥的“纽带”作用。

  请参考以下例题:Cambridge 8 Test1 Passage 3

  Flaw

  Positive results could be produced by factors such as 34______or 35______.

  这两题属于表格填空。我们可以将Flaw和Positive results作为定位词,在文中找到大致位置;另外,通过空格前的such as可以判断两题的词性都是名词,且并列关系。请参考原文:

  Paragraph 4

  The implication was that the ganzfeld method had revealed real evidence for telepathy. But there was a crucial flaw in this argument – one routinely overlooked in more conventional areas of science. Just because chance had been ruled out as an explanation did not prove telepathy must exist; there were many other ways of getting positive results. These ranged from 'sensory leakage' – where clues about the pictures accidentally reach the receiver – to outright fraud.

  定位词可以在段落中轻松找到原词,但positive results所在句子中不能找到一组并列关系的名词;而后面一句的主语these则指代了之前的positive results,所以句意便得到了延伸。通过该句中的词组ranged from...to...,我们就不难发现其中所包含的两个对象sensory leakage和outright fraud属于产生积极结果的因素,即是正确答案。

  请再看一例:Cambridge 12 Test8 Passage 2

  18. According to the author, what distinguishes rewilding from other environmental campaigns?

  A. Its objective is more achievable.

  B. Its supporters are more articulate.

  C. Its positive message is more appealing.

  D. It is based on sounder scientific principles.

  本题属于较复杂的细节题(单选)。题干信息提出了一个对比,即rewilding(放归)和environmental campaigns(环保活动)间的区别,所以distinguish是我们在题干中要重点关注的词。请参考原文:

  Paragraph 6

  Rewilding is a rare example of an environmental movement in which campaigners articulate what they are for rather than only what they are against. One of the reasons why the enthusiasm for rewilding is spreading so quickly in Britain is that it helps to create a more inspiring vision than the green movement's usual promise of 'Follow us and the world will be slightly less awful than it would otherwise have been.'

  第六段整段介绍了rewilding(放归活动)的特点。首先,该活动的参与者会表明自己所支持的事物,这仅仅告诉我们其传递了正能量;其次又提到了该活动在英国很受欢迎,这些只是一个笼统的概念,并非对比。此时,就需要考生能更细心地发现句中用的指代词it,将其与rewilding联系起来,再通过后面的比较级形式a more inspiring vision than(一个比...更鼓舞人心的愿景),符合了题干中的distinguish,该信息符合C选项中的positive、more appealing(更吸引人)。

  四、单词理解(Words Understanding)

  词汇理解是阅读考试的基本功,也是提高阅读速度的关键因素之一。具备一定的词汇量不但有助于细节信息的准确理解,而且有助于段落主旨的总体把握。在阅读过程中难免遇到生词,因此掌握推测的方法是阅读中的必要技能,并帮助考生突破答题瓶颈。词义推测可以通过多种方法进行,笔者这里主要介绍一项最便于考生们理解的方法,即前后并列关系利用。

  请参考以下例题:Cambridge 9 Test2 Passage 3

  YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

  NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

  NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

  35. If you think in an iconoclastic way, you can easily overcome fear.

  Paragraph 6

  The problem with novelty, however, is that it tends to trigger the brain's fear system. Fear is a majorimpediment to thinking like an iconoclast and stops the average person in his tracks. There are many types of fear, but the two that inhibit iconoclastic thinking and people generally find difficult to deal with are fear of uncertainty and fear of public ridicule......

  我们继续通过判断题来分析如何通过词义推测来解题。首先,考生们可以扫读段落,并在前两行定位到已知信息fear和thinking like an iconoclast;其次,我们需要精读目标句来确定是否符合题干中的考点信息easily overcome。然而,句中存在一个生词impediment对答题造成的困难;如果我们能够利用后面出现的并列连词and以及stops,就很容易推断出前面的生词大致可以表示“阻止、妨碍”的意思。另外,本段第三句也提及了fear和iconoclastic thinking,我们也可以通过and和后文的difficult to deal with来推测inhabit表示消极含义,即“限制、阻碍”。所以,这些消极信息恰好与题干中的积极信息相矛盾,本题答案NO。

  以上是小编为大家分享的雅思阅读四大技巧,每一项技巧都可以在一定方面帮助我们来解答阅读考题,希望今天小编分享的练习方法能帮助我们在考试中拿到一个满意的成绩。


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