重复年份20150711 20120712 20100211 20071020 20070303
题型小标题 6+段落细节配对 5+选择 3
Gestures have been studied throughout the centuries from different perspectivesDuring the Roman Empire, Quintilian studied in his Institution Oratoria how gesture may be used in rhetorical discourse. Another broad study of gesture was published by Englishman John Bulwer in 1644. Bulwer analyzed dozens of gestures and provided a guide on how to use gestures to increase eloquence and clarity for public speaking.] Andrea De Jorio published an extensive account of gestural expression in 1832. A peer reviewed journal Gesturehas been published since 2001 and was founded by Adam Kendon and Cornelia Müller. The International Society for Gesture Studies (ISGS) was founded in 2002.
Gesture has frequently been taken up by researchers in the field of dance studies and performance studies in ways that emphasize the ways they are culturally and
contextually inflected. Performance scholar, Carrie Noland, describes gestures as "learned techniques of the body" and stresses the way gestures are embodied corporeal forms of cultural communication. But rather than just residing within one cultural context, she describes how gesture migrate across bodies and locations to create new cultural meanings and associations. She also posits how they might function as a form of "resistance to homogenization" because they are so dependent on the specificities of the bodies that perform them.
Gesture has also been taken up within queer theory, ethnic studies and their intersections in performance studies, as a way to think about how the moving body gains social meaning. José Esteban Muñoz uses the idea of gesture to mark a kind of refusal of finitude and certainty and links gesture to his ideas of ephemera. Muñoz specifically draws on the African-American dancer and drag queen performerKevin Aviance to articulate his interest not in what queer gestures might mean, but what they might perform. Juana María Rodríguez borrows ideas of phenomenology and draws on Noland and Muñoz to investigate how gesture functions in queer sexual practices as a way to rewrite gender and negotiate power relations. She also connects gesture to Giorgio Agamben's idea of "means without ends" to think about political projects of social justice that are incomplete, partial, and legibile within culturally and socially defined spheres of meaning.
Within the field of linguistics, the most hotly contested aspect of gesture revolves
around the subcategory of Lexical or Iconic Co-Speech Gestures. Adam Kendon was the first linguist to hypothesize on their purpose when he argued that Lexical gestures do work to amplify or modulate the lexico-semantic content of the verbal speech with which they co-occur. However, since the late 1990s, most research has revolved around the contrasting hypothesis that Lexical gestures serve a primarily cognitive purpose in aiding the process of speech production As of 2012, there is research to suggest that Lexical Gesture does indeed serve a primarily communicative purpose and cognitive only secondary, but in the realm of socio-pragmatic communication, rather than lexico-semantic modification.
文章题目Dust and American
重复年份20150801 20130718 20080214
题型判断 7+填空 6
1.The dust had shot up dramatically since the second half of 19 century True
2.The Aztec civilization disappeared due to the dust in the atmospheres false
3.Before people bringing castles southwest has a lot of basins in great plain false
4. Basins 'number decrease since European settlers found them are easy to be hu
nt not given
5. Railway building used more money than expected not given
6. &&&hand railway company work hard to protect the land they own false
7. Until today the land belongs to company still infertile. True
1930s law. Limit 8 cattle herbs
Today BF research where the dust comes from ? China?
Analysis components and 9 size From southwest
BN soil cannot be destroyed by high 10 wind
Soil can be destroyed by cattle hooks
Analyzing 11 lake sediments
Discover. 12 nutrients
Dust cannot be blamed for gradual disappearance of. Snow and 13 glaciers
重复年份20150919 20140802 20120209 20090627 20080821
题型段落细节配对 6+选择 3+填空 4
文章大意本文主要讲了澳洲鹦鹉 Australia Parrots 在澳洲数量繁多的原因和各种特 点习性的分析。在适应环境的过程中，有的鹦鹉灭绝了。
14.one example of one parrot species survive from the change of environment. D
20. parrot 都分布在哪些地区?C .in the continent which split up.
21. 关于 parrot beaks 哪一项是对的?D
22. nesting 的确定是什么?D
23. one-sixth in Australia
24. as easy as 16th century
25. mapmaker cartographer