在雅思阅读考试中,很多考生认为比较难的是长难句部分,那么雅思阅读长难句主要有哪些呢,其实根据结构特征来说,分为三种,从句;插入语;分词作修饰语。有时候句子比较长,句型比较复杂,很难让大家去理解内容。那么具体这三类长难句如何分析呢,跟着小编一起来看看吧!

  长难句结构特征无外乎三种:从句;插入语;分词作修饰语。

  一、从句

  备考雅思阅读过程中需要重点关注的从句主要是定语从句,主语从句,宾语从句。笔者建议:同学们重点掌握定语从句;而主语从句和宾语从句能够识别即可。

  Example 1 (C8-T1-P2):

  An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, which were becoming quite congested.

  上句中,accident后面有一个由that引导的定语从句;the skies over the U.S. 被which引导的非限定性定语从句修饰;而FAA后面则是to regulate and oversee…这样一个作后置定语的不定式短语。

  Example 2 (C7-T3-P3):

  European countries are becoming increasingly concerned by major threats to European forests, threats which know no frontiers other than those of geography or climate: air pollution, soil deterioration, the increasing number of forest fires and sometimes even the mismanagement of our woodland and forest heritage.

  上句中,to European forests是一个后置的定语;这个定语后面的threats是前一个threats的同位语,这个同位语被一个超长的定语从句which…所修饰。这个句子的主干部分其实特别简单:European countries are becoming concerned by major threats。另外,建议同学们在处理上句中冒号后面的批量列举时,快速扫过即可。

  Example 3 (C9-T2-P1):

  It is imperative that the needs f these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future.

  拿上句作为例子,笔者意图只有一个:以后碰到诸如it is imperative that…, it became apparent that…, it is universally acknowledged that…等等这类主语从句,大家基本可以忽略主句部分,只需关注从句,即that后面的内容。

  Example 4(C7-T3-P1):

  Research conducted at Oxford, Sussex and Zǔrich Universities has shown that when desert ants return from a foraging trip, they navigate by integrating bearings and distance, which they continuously update in their heads.

  上句中,that…一直到句末,是谓语动词shown的一个超长的宾语从句;而在这个宾语从句中,which…是一个非限定性定语从句,用来修饰bearings and distance。上句的主干成分可以裁剪为:research has shown that...。

  请同学们再看下面一个例句,其中的定语从句、主语从句的主句部分以及宾语从句分别用不同颜色标出。

  Example 5(C9-T1-P2):

  However, when we look at the 100 billion stars in our galaxy (the Milky Way), and 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, it seems inconvincible that at least one of these planets does not have a life form on it; in fact, the best educated guess we can make, using the little that we do know about the conditions for carbon-based life, leads us to estimate that perhaps one in 100,000 stars might have a life-bearing planet orbiting it.

  二、插入语

  同学们还沉浸在理解Example 5 的纠结痛苦中吧?有人会抱怨:上句中的四个从句(一个主语从句+三个定语从句), 哪怕我能辨认出而且也把它们卸掉了,但还是理解困难啊!知道痛苦的原因是什么吗?——两个超长的插入语!插入语1:when we look ...and 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe;插入语2:using the little that we do know about the conditions for carbon-based life。关于雅思阅读中的插入语,教给同学们一个最捷径的办法:跳过它,视若不见!所以,example 5这个例句中,分号前面就是一个前置的时间状语从句when…再加一个主语从句;分号后面就只剩下the best educated guess leads us to estimate…这样简短的内容了。

  再看几个例子吧。

  Example 6 (C7-T1-P1):

  In any event, whether or not the reason is the energy expense, it seems to be the case that, with the possible exception of some weird deep-sea fish, no animal apart from man uses manufactured light to find its way about

  上句中,如果我们把两个插入语拿掉,这个复杂长句就只剩下一个小小的主语从句:it seems to be the case that no animal apart from man uses manufactured light to find its way about。

  Example 7 (C7-T1-P2):

  At the height of Roman Empire, nine major systems, with an innovative layout of pipes and well-built sewers, supplied the occupants of Rome with as much water per person as is provided in many parts of the industrial world today.

  上句中,且先不论at the height of Roman Empire这个前置的时间状语,如果我们砍掉with…这个扮演systems的定语的插入语,再辨别出as is provided …这个定语从句,剩下的句子主干就是:nine major systems supplied the occupants of Rome with much water per person。而且这个被裁剪之后剩下的主干句,仅仅就是我们非常熟悉的一个动词短语:supply somebody with something!

  同学们现在能领悟插入语的处理方式了吗?即:视若不见。但需要提醒大家的是,在理解了句子的核心信息之后,砍掉的插入语务必再回看!毕竟雅思考试阅读部分绝大多数是考察细节信息,很多时候在插入语上也会出题。

  三、分词作修饰语

  这里要讲的主要是现在分词以及过去分词作定语(通常后置)或状语。

  Example 8 (C5-T4-P1):

  There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors.

  上句中,providing the locals with reliable source of income是现在分词短语用作结果状语,而这个状语部分,是我们多么熟悉的provide somebody with something这个动词短语啊! 另外,source of income后面有个不算复杂的定语从句。理解了这两个修饰语成分,上句不就只剩下我们无比熟悉的一个there be句型了吗?

  Example 9(C8-T1-P1):

  They based their calendars on three natural cycles: the solar day, marked by the successive periods of light and darkness as the earth rotates on its axis; the lunar month, following the phases of the moon as it orbits the earth; and the solar year, defined by the changing seasons that accompany our planet’s revolution around the sun.

  上句中,句子主干即为:they based their calendars on three natural cycles。然后分别描述了三种自然周期:the solar day(marked by…这个过去分词作后置定语,只是这个长定语里有个as引导的时间状语);the lunar month(following …为现在分词作后置定语);the solar year( defined by…为过去分词作后置定语,这个定语里还有个changing现在分词作seasons的定语以及that…定语从句)。

  Example 10(C8-T1-P2):

  In the 1940s, ATC centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio communication brought about by the Second World War, but the system remained rudimentary.

  上句中,newly developed, improved是两个前置的过去分词,作定语分别修饰radar和radio communication;而这两个主句的宾语,又共享一个后置定语,即过去分词短语brought about by …。

  以上是小编为大家介绍的雅思阅读长难句相关内容,希望大家能结合练习来掌握以上三种类型的雅思阅读长难句的分析方法。在雅思阅读考试中,我们能有一个更好的发挥,能够充分的理解长句来帮助我们答题。

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