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  SECTION 3 Questions 21-30

  Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

  Study on Gender in Physics

  21 The students in Akira Miyake‘s study were all majoring in

  A physics.

  B psychology or physics.

  C science, technology, engineering or mathematics.

  22 The aim of Miyake’s study was to investigate

  A what kind of women choose to study physics.

  B a way of improving women’s performance in physics.

  C whether fewer women than men study physics at college.

  23 The female physics students were wrong to believe that

  A the teachers marked them in an unfair way.

  B the male students expected them to do badly.

  C their test results were lower than the male students’.

  24 Miyake’s team asked the students to write about

  A what they enjoyed about studying physics.

  B the successful experiences of other people.

  C something that was important to them personally.

  25 What was the aim of the writing exercise done by the subjects?

  A to reduce stress

  B to strengthen verbal ability

  C to encourage logical thinking

  26 What surprised the researchers about the study?

  A how few students managed to get A grades

  B the positive impact it had on physics results for women

  C the difference between male and female performance

  27 Greg and Lisa think Miyake’s results could have been affected by

  A the length of the writing task.

  B the number of students who took part.

  C the information the students were given.

  28 Greg and Lisa decide that in their own project, they will compare the effects of

  A two different writing tasks.

  B a writing task with an oral task.

  C two different oral tasks.

  29 The main finding of Smolinsky’s research was that class teamwork activities

  A were most effective when done by all-women groups.

  B had no effect on the performance of men or women.

  C improved the results of men more than of women.

  30 What will Lisa and Greg do next?

  A talk to a professor

  B observe a science class

  C look at the science timetable

  SECTION 4 Questions 31-40

  Complete the notes below.

  Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

  Ocean Biodiversity

  Biodiversity hotspots

  areas containing many different species

  important for locating targets for 31 __________

  at first only identified on land

  Boris Worm, 2005

  identified hotspots for large ocean predators, e.g. sharks

  found that ocean hotspots:

  - were not always rich in 32 __________

  - had higher temperatures at the 33 __________

  - had sufficient 34 __________ in the water

  Lisa Ballance, 2007

  looked for hotspots for marine 35 __________

  found these were all located where ocean currents meet

  Census of Marine Life

  found new ocean species living:

  - under the 36 __________

  - near volcanoes on the ocean floor

  Global Marine Species Assessment

  want to list endangered ocean species, considering:

  - population size

  - geographical distribution

  - rate of 37 __________

  Aim: to assess 20,000 species and make a distribution 38 __________ for each one

  Recommendations to retain ocean biodiversity

  increase the number of ocean reserves

  establish 39 __________ corridors (e.g. for turtles)

  reduce fishing quotas

  catch fish only for the purpose of 40 __________

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