文章的主题 (the topic: A background sentence giving some background information on the essay topic.
涉及的方面(the aspect of the topic being dealt with: A more detailed sentence linking the background sentence to the thesis.)
作者的立场 (the stand (attitude) taken by the writer to the topic)
Discussion / Report 类
陈述文章的目的(state the purpose of the essay) , 如The aim/purpose of this essay is to …
主要观点总结 (outline the main points of the essay: An outline sentence declaring main points you are going to use to support your thesis.)
1.1 开头段实例 (Samples)
1. Today people are surrounded by many kinds of advertising and this is having an increasing effect on our lives. Do the positive effects outweigh the negative effects?
Advertisements have become one of the crucial factors that determines the style and functioning of one’s life in different contexts. The force of advertising reaches out and touches everyone living and working in the modern world today. (描述背景 + 转述题目)For me, advertising nowadays brings more negative influences to the public and strongly affects our daily lives, such as irrational buying behaviours and information explosion. (个人倾向 + 主要观点)
2. Older people who need employment have to compete with younger people. What problems does this cause? And what are the solutions?
There is a widely held perception (n. 感知) that old and young people are fighting for a single scarce commodity: jobs (一单一稀缺商品：工作). (描述背景) Many cities have become a front line (前线) in a generational battle (世代之争) for jobs, as older workers increasingly compete against applicants in their 20s for positions in most industries, including supermarkets, McDonald’s, and dozens of (许多) other places. (转述题目)Some problems and effects such as vicious competition (恶性竞争) might arise and from this, possible solutions will be discussed in this essay. (交代文章写作目的)
文章的主题 (1)涉及的方面 (2)
Research has shown that …
It is often reported that…
Recent advances in … have led to…
The issue of … is one which needs to be looked at carefully
It has become apparent in recent years, that…is an issue that many people feel strongly about.This essay will discuss the topic of…in more details.
This essay will consider the problem of … and outline possible solutions.
In this essay, the argument/issue surrounding…will be examined.
The arguments both for and against… will be evaluated in this essay
作者的观点 (3)作者的立场 (3)
However, the writer also thinks…
The writer would also argue that…
However, from the writer’s perspective, …
However, the writer feels the question is not whether…but whether…The writer would argue that…
The writer firmly believes that…
It seems to me that…
The writer tends to think that…
很明显，政府的主要职责是提高公民的生活标准。(improve citizens’ living standards)
媒体提供给人们所需要的从时事到娱乐新闻的各类信息。(current affairs, entertainments news)
大学被认为是一个增加知识和做学术研究的地方。(conducting academic studies)
教育，简单地说，就是获取知识、学习规范的行为举止、在某个特定的领域获得技术能力的过程。(gaining knowledge, learning forms of proper conduct, acquiring technical competency)