A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet
cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply
increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a
significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of
time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the
psychologists’ speculation is correct.
1. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that
they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.
B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead
to an increased incidence of depression.
C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-to-face
social contact they experienced in their daily lives.
D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if
they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.
E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already
more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.
African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern
American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic
conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment
and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long
as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the
“plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality
inevitably triumphed over them.
The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an
African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul
and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to
portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
A. African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the
B. African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual
and the environment.
C. African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist
Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.
D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African
E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the
spiritual and psychological worlds.
2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the
A. internal rather than the external life of her characters
B. madness of reality rather than the effects of reality
C. effects of materialism on African American minds and souls
D. relationship between naturalism and the human spirit
E. effects that her characters have on the environment
3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors assertion that
Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?
A. Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nevertheless unfamiliar to the average
viewer or reader.
B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United
C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.
D. Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.
E. Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.