African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.

  The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.

  1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

  A. African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the materialistic.

  B. African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual and the environment.

  C. African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.

  D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African American drama.

  E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.

  2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the

  A. internal rather than the external life of her characters

  B. madness of reality rather than the effects of reality

  C. effects of materialism on African American minds and souls

  D. relationship between naturalism and the human spirit

  E. effects that her characters have on the environment

  3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors ass**ion that Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?

  A. Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nev**heless unfamiliar to the average viewer or reader.

  B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United States.

  C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.

  D. Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.

  E. Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.

  Passage 17

  Early naturalists believed two species of beaver lived in North America: dam beavers and bank beavers. The bank species was thought to resemble the muskrat in behavior, living in burrows or lodges and unable to build dams. In fact, dams are primarily a strategy for dealing with annual variations in water levels. If water levels fall in summer, as they do in most of North America, then beavers lodge entrances may be exposed. With stabilized water levels, their homes are much safer. Along deep rivers, where bank beavers are found, this problem seldom arises. But these beavers do know how to build dams, and do so if the need arises, as may occur if they are forced to relocate after felling and consuming all nearby trees.

  1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements about beaver dams?

  A. One important function of these dams is to protect beavers homes.

  B. Most are built prior to burrow construction.

  C. They are found mostly along deep rivers.

  D. They are routinely abandoned as nearby forests are depleted.

  E. They mainly protect beavers from rising water levels.

  2. The passage implies which of the following about beavers?

  A. Bank beavers are unable to successfully compete with dam beavers when resources become scarce.

  B. Differences in dam-building behavior among beavers do not necessarily imply multiple beaver species.

  C. Building dams eventually causes beavers to deplete nearby resources.

  D. When conditions permit, beavers are more likely to build dams than burrows or lodges.

  E. In beavers, dam-building is an acquired rather than an innate skill.

  Passage 139

  Analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians in state and local government jobs is important for several reasons. First, the basic idea underlying the theory of representative bureaucracy is that the demographic composition of bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition of the general public. This is because in addition to its symbolic value, increased access to managerial position may lead to greater responsiveness on the part of policy makers to the policy interests of traditionally disadvantaged groups such as American Indians. Second, the focus on higher level jobs in bureaucracies (as opposed to non-managerial positions) is especially important because managerial positions represent a major source of economic progress for members of traditionally disadvantaged groups, as these jobs confer good salaries, benefits, status, security, and mobility. Third, it is important to know if there has been growth in the American Indian share of more desirable public sector positions over the last two decades. For instance, Peterson and Duncan argue that the population and power of American Indians have been growing in c**ain states. Peterson and Duncan also suggest that this growth may reflect the possibility that American Indian population are becoming more active in nontraditional areas of politics, assimilating into mainstream culture, and securing with greater frequency leadership positions in non-tribal government.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. summarize a demographic trend ov** time

  B. present findings on a demographic group

  C. analyze the demographic composition of a type of job

  D. explain the need for particular social research

  E. argue for the implementation of a social policy

  2. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as whole?

  A. It hypothesizes a phenomenon that might explain a point made in the preceding sentence.

  B. It provides evidence that undermines that ass**ion made in the first sentence.

  C. It offers a projection regarding the development of a trend mentioned earlier in the passage.

  D. It presents an interpretation of a discrepancy noted earlier in the passage.

  E. It proposed an implementation of a policy mentioned in the preceding sentence.

  3. The passage suggests which of the following regarding “access to managerial positions” for disadvantaged groups?

  A. This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positions mirrors the percent of that group in the general public.

  B. This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups.

  C. This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups.

  D. This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups.

  E. The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged

  groups.Passage 185

  In Stanton the average number of people injured per automobile accident is consistently higher for accidents involving a taxicab than for those not involving a taxicab. Although all Stanton taxicabs are equipped with passenger seat belts, taxicab drivers reporter that passengers tend not to use them. It is likely, therefore, that if taxicab passengers were required to use seat belts, the number of people injured per accident would soon be no higher for taxicabs than for other automobiles.

  Which of the following, if true about Stanton, most seriously weakens the argument?

  A. The number of automobile accidents has been declining in recent years.

  B. Since taxicabs are driven more miles annually than most other vehicles, they are more likely to be in an accident during any given year than is the average vehicle.

  C. There are more taxicabs in operation, relative to the overall number of motor vehicles, than there are in most cities of Stanton’s size.

  D. The number of people, including the driver, who occupy a vehicle is generally greater for taxicabs than for other vehicles.

  E. Not all passengers in automobiles other than taxicabs use seat belts.

  Passage 73

  Jane Austen’ s relationship to Romanticism has long been a vexed one. Although her dates (1775-1817) place her squarely within the period, she traditionally has been studied apart from the male poets whose work defined British Romanticism for most of the twentieth century. In the past her novels were thought to follow an Augustan mode at odds with the Romantic ethos. Even with the advent of historicist and feminist criticism, which challenged many previous characterizations of Austen as detached from the major social, political and aesthetic currents of her time, she continued to be distinguished from her male contemporaries. Jerome McCann, for example, insists that Austen does not espouse the Romantic ideology. Anne Mellor declares that Austen, along with other “leading women intellectual and writers of the day” “did not”, participate in the Romantic “spirit of the age” but instead embraced an alternative ideology that Mellor labels “feminine Romanticism”.

  To be sure, some critics throughout the years have argued for Austen’s affinities with one or more of the male Romantic poets. A special issue of the Wordsworth Circle (Autumn 1976)was devoted to exploring connections between Austen and her male contemporaries. Clifford Siskin in his historicist study of Romanticism argued that Austen does participate in the same major innovation, the naturalization of belief in a developing self, as thatcharacterized in Wordsworth’s poetry and other key works from the period. Recently, three books have appeared (by Clara Tuite, William Galperin, and William Deresiewicz) that in various ways treat Austen as a Romantic writer and together signal a shift in the tendency to segregate the major novelist of the age from the major poets.

  The present essay seeks to contribute to this goal of firmly integrating Austen within the Romantic movement and canon. It does so by pointing out affinities between Austen and a writer with whom she has not commonly been associated, John Keats. Most comparisons of Austen and the Romantic poets have focused on Wordsworth and Byron, whose works we know she read. Although Austen could not have read Keats’ s poems, which only began to appear in print during the last years of her life, and there is no evidence that Keats knew Austen’ s novels, a number of important similarities can be noted in these writers’ works that provide further evidence to link Austen with the Romantic movement, especially the period of second-generation Romanticism when all of her novels were published.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. reconcile two competing positions in an ongoing critical debate

  B. develop a counterargument against a recent interpretation of a writer’s work

  C. provide support for a new approach to a writer’s work

  D. illustrate the contradictions experienced by women writers during a c**ain period

  E. explain a writer’s detachment from the major intellectual currents of a period

  2. The author of the passage describes Austen’s relationship to Romanticism as “vexed” mainly because

  A. her novels do not follow the Augustan mode to the extent the poetry of her contemporaries did

  B. her views seem to be at odds with those of male writer whose works defined British Romanticism

  C. her novels were written during the Romantic period, yet she is not treated as a Romantic writer

  D. her novels are critical of the Romantic ideology, embracing instead an alternative ideology sometimes described as “feminine Romanticism”

  E. she achieved recognition for her novels, whereas the Romantic era is better know for its poetry

  3. According to to the passage, compared to critics trained in “historicist and feminist criticism” (highlighted)earlier critics of Austen were

  A. more likely to represent her as isolated from the major intellectual currents of her period

  B. more likely to represent her as departing from Augustan modes of thought

  C. more likely to find connections between her novels and Romantic poetry

  D. less likely to neglect the influence of Romantic ideology on her workE. less likely to notice affinities between Austen and her female counterparts

  E. less likely to notice affinities between Austen and her female counterparts

  4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the concept of “feminine Romanticism”(highlighted)?

  A. It bought about Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by implying that Austen embraced relatively few elements of the Romantic ideology.

  B. It contributes to Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by keeping her separate from the male writers whose poetry is central to the period.

  C. It ameliorates Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by emphasizing affinities between he and other leading women intellectuals of the day.

  D. It ameliorates Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by capturing the notion of an alternative Romantic ideology that she espoused.

  E. It resolves Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by demonstrating her affinity with Romantic ideology.

  Section:VERBAL- Reading Comprehension

  Pool Number:

  Passage71

  African American drama has, until recently, beenrooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of thistradition is the mechanistic,materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to theenvironment and depicts each person assomeone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintainednaturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroesmight declare the madness of reality,but reality inevitably triumphed over them.

  The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy markone of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of herwork has been to depict the world of thesoul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from theirconnections to the external environment.

  1.Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

  A. African American drama has been primarilyinfluenced by naturalisms emphasis onthe materialistic.

  B. African American drama has traditionallyacknowledged the relationship betweenthe individual and the environment.

  C. African American drama, traditionallynaturalistic, has been little influencedby dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.

  D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift awayfrom a commitment to strict naturalismin African American drama.

  E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies thecurrent interest of African Americanartists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.

  2.According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the

  A. internal rather than the external life of hercharacters

  B. madness of reality rather than the effectsof reality

  C. effects of materialism on African Americanminds and souls

  D. relationship between naturalism and the humanspirit

  E. effects that her characters have on theenvironment

  3.Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors ass**ion thatKennedy’s work marks a serious departurefrom the tradition described in the first paragraph?

  A. Kennedy places the action in a real-lifesetting that is nev**heless unfamiliarto the average viewer or reader.

  B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives andstruggles of prominent African Americansin the United States.

  C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancientAfrican legends and mythology.

  D. Kennedy provides insights into Americanmimetic tradition and dramatic convention.

  E. Kennedy depicts the events in a stylereminiscent of a television documentary.

  Analysis

  答案:DAC

  文科类,文学评论。以AK为代表的戏剧偏离了惯常非裔美国人的戏剧的做法,不再去描写自然,外在的东西,更强调精神层面的表现。GRE惯常阅读题材。第一,二题很简单,第三题为逻辑题思路,需要削弱,攻击原文逻辑链。

  Pool Number:

  Passage17

  Earlynaturalists believed two species of beaver lived in North America: dam beavers and bank beavers. The bankspecies was thought to resemble themuskrat in behavior, living in burrows or lodges and unable to build dams. In fact, dams areprimarily a strategy for dealing withannual variations in water levels. If water levels fall in summer, as they do in most of North America, thenbeavers lodge entrances may be exposed.With stabilized water levels, their homes are much safer. Along deep rivers, where bank beavers are found, thisproblem seldom arises. But these beaversdo know how to build dams, and do so if the need arises, as may occur if they are forced to relocate after fellingand consuming all nearby trees.

  1.The passage provides support for whichof the following statements about beaver dams?

  A.One important function of these dams is to protect beavers homes.

  B.Most are built prior to burrow construction.

  C.They are found mostly along deep rivers.

  D.They are routinely abandoned as nearby forests are depleted.

  E.They mainly protect beavers from rising water levels.

  2.The passage implies which of the followingabout beavers?

  A.Bank beavers are unable to successfully compete with dam beavers when resources become scarce.

  B.Differences in dam-building behavior among beavers do not necessarily imply multiple beaver species.

  C.Building dams eventually causes beavers to deplete nearby resources.

  D.When conditions permit, beavers are more likely to build dams than burrows or lodges.

  E.In beavers, dam-building is an acquired rather than an innate skill.

  Analysis

  答案:AB

  生物学话题,讲海狸建坝。新老观点对比型文章。细节题与推断题。生物学话题还容易考到食物链,多种动物同时登场,注意各种动物之间的关系。注意第二题中的notnecessarily 的意思不是“不必要”,而是“不一定”,许多同学理解有误。注意纠正。

  PoolNumber:

  Passage73

  Jane Austen’ s relationship to Romanticism haslong been a vexed one. Although her dates (1775-1817) place her squarely within the period, shetraditionally has been studied apartfrom the male poets whose work defined British Romanticism for most of the twentieth century. In thepast her novels were thought to followan Augustan mode at odds with the Romantic ethos. Even with the advent of historicist and feminist criticism, whichchallenged many previouscharacterizations of Austen as detached from the major social, political and aesthetic currents of her time,she continued to be distinguished fromher male contemporaries. Jerome McCann, for example, insists that Austen does not espouse theRomantic ideology. Anne Mellor declaresthat Austen, along with other “leading women intellectual and writers of the day” “did not”, participate inthe Romantic “spirit of the age” butinstead embraced an alternative ideology that Mellor labels “feminine Romanticism”.

  Tobe sure, some critics throughout theyears have argued for Austen’s affinities with one or more of the male Romantic poets. A specialissue of the Wordsworth Circle (Autumn1976) was devoted to exploring connections between Austen and her male contemporaries. Clifford Siskin in hishistoricist study of Romanticism arguedthat Austen does participate in the same major innovation, the naturalization of belief in a developingself, as that characterized in Wordsworth’s poetry and other key works from the period. Recently,three books have appeared (by ClaraTuite, William Galperin, and William Deresiewicz) that in various ways treat Austen as a Romantic writerand together signal a shift in thetendency to segregate the major novelist of the age from the major poets.

  Thepresent essay seeks to contribute tothis goal of firmly integrating Austen within the Romantic movement and canon. It does so bypointing out affinities between Austenand a writer with whom she has not commonly been associated, John Keats. Most comparisons of Austen and theRomantic poets have focused on Wordsworth and Byron, whose works we know she read. Although Austencould not have read Keats’ s poems,which only began to appear in print during the last years of her life, and there is no evidencethat Keats knew Austen’ s novels, anumber of important similarities can be noted in these writers’ works that provide further evidence to link Austen withthe Romantic movement, especially theperiod of second-generation Romanticism when all of her novels were published.

  1.The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A.reconcile two competing positions in anongoing critical debate

  B.develop a counterargument against arecent interpretation of a writer’s work

  C.provide support for a new approach to awriter’s work

  D.illustrate the contradictionsexperienced by women writers during a c**ain period

  E.explain a writer’s detachment from themajor intellectual currents of a period

  2.The author of the passage describesAusten’s relationship to Romanticism as “vexed” mainly because

  A.her novels do not follow the Augustanmode to the extent the poetry of her contemporaries did

  B.her views seem to be at odds with thoseof male writer whose works defined British Romanticism

  C.her novels were written during theRomantic period, yet she is not treated as a Romantic writer

  D.her novels are critical of the Romanticideology, embracing instead an alternative ideology sometimes described as “feminine Romanticism”

  E.she achieved recognition for her novels,whereas the Romantic era is better know for its poetry

  3. According to to the passage, compared tocritics trained in “historicist and feminist criticism” (highlighted)earlier critics of Austen were

  A.more likely to represent her as isolatedfrom the major intellectual currents of her period

  B.more likely to represent her asdeparting from Augustan modes of thought

  C.more likely to find connections betweenher novels and Romantic poetry

  D.less likely to neglect the influence ofRomantic ideology on her work

  E.less likely to notice affinities betweenAusten and her female counterparts

  4.The author of the passage would be mostlikely to agree with which of the following statements about the concept of “feminine Romanticism”(highlighted)?

  A.It bought about Austen’ s vexedrelationship to Romanticism by implying that Austen embraced relatively few elements of theRomantic ideology.

  B.It contributes to Austen’ s vexedrelationship to Romanticism by keeping her separate from the male writers whose poetry is central tothe period.

  C.It ameliorates Austen’ s vexedrelationship to Romanticism by emphasizing affinities between he and other leading women intellectuals ofthe day.

  D.It ameliorates Austen’ s vexedrelationship to Romanticism by capturing the notion of an alternative Romantic ideology that sheespoused.

  E.It resolves Austen’ s vexed relationshipto Romanticism by demonstrating her affinity with Romantic ideology.

  Analysis

  答案:CCAB

  文学评论。简奥斯汀的浪漫主义与男性诗人的浪漫主义的不同。文章长句较多,题干选项长度均较长,难度比较大。文科文章一定要搞清楚作者态度,把握好隐线,留意态度词,联系上课讲过的内容,化抽象为具体,用中文总结每段主旨。

  Pool Number:

  Passage 139

  Analyzinglevels of proportional representation ofAmerican Indians in state and local government jobs is important for several reasons. First, the basic ideaunderlying the theory of representativebureaucracy is that the demographic composition of bureaucracy should mirror the demographic composition ofthe general public. This is because inaddition to its symbolic value, increased access to managerial position may lead to greater responsivenesson the part of policy makers to thepolicy interests of traditionally disadvantaged groups such as American Indians. Second, the focus on higher leveljobs in bureaucracies (as opposed tonon-managerial positions) is especially important because managerial positions represent a major source of economicprogress for members of traditionallydisadvantaged groups, as these jobs confer good salaries, benefits, status, security, and mobility.Third, it is important to know if therehas been growth in the American Indian share of more desirable public sector positions over the last two decades.For instance, Peterson and Duncan arguethat the population and power of American Indians have been growing in c**ain states. Peterson and Duncan alsosuggest that this growth may reflect thepossibility that American Indian population are becoming more active in nontraditional areas of politics,assimilating into mainstream culture,and securing with greater frequency leadership positions in non-tribal government.

  1.The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A.summarize a demographic trend ov** time

  B.present findings on a demographic group

  C.analyze the demographic composition of a type of job

  D.explain the need for particular social research

  E.argue for the implementation of a social policy

  2.Which of the following best describesthe function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as whole?

  A.It hypothesizes a phenomenon that might explain a point made in the preceding sentence.

  B.It provides evidence that undermines that ass**ion made in the first sentence.

  C.It offers a projection regarding the development of a trend mentioned earlier in the passage.

  D.It presents an interpretation of a discrepancy noted earlier in the passage.

  E.It proposed an implementation of a policy mentioned in the preceding sentence.

  3.The passage suggests which of thefollowing regarding “access to managerial positions” for disadvantaged groups?

  A.This access is only significant when the percentage of disadvantaged group members in managerial positionsmirrors the percent of that group in thegeneral public.

  B.This access is largely the result of policy decisions made response to interest of those groups.

  C.This access has meaning apart from any policy benefits it confer on those groups.

  D.This access often creates increased access to non-managerial position for those groups.

  E.The extent of this access tends to be similar across different disadvantaged groups.

  Analysis

  答案:DCC

  社会科学,讲研究美国印第安人从事州或者政府部门工作的重要性。文章结构非常清晰,主要从三个方面来讲重要性。考察到了主旨题,举例目的题和推断题。推断题出自第二个点,注意上下文定位与理解。

  PoolNumber:

  Passage185

  InStanton the average number of peopleinjured per automobile accident is consistently higher for accidents involving a taxicab than for those not involving a taxicab. Although all Stanton taxicabs areequipped with passenger seat belts,taxicab drivers reporter that passengers tend not to use them. It is likely, therefore, that if taxicab passengerswere required to use seat belts, thenumber of people injured per accident would soon be no higher for taxicabs than for other automobiles.

  Which of the following, if true about Stanton, mostseriously weakens the argument?

  A.The number of automobile accidents hasbeen declining in recent years.

  B.Since taxicabs are driven more milesannually than most other vehicles, they are more likely to be in an accident during any given yearthan is the average vehicle.

  C.There are more taxicabs in operation,relative to the overall number of motor vehicles, than there are in most cities of Stanton’s size.

  D.The number of people, including thedriver, who occupy a vehicle is generally greater for taxicabs than for other vehicles.

  E.Not all passengers in automobiles oth**han taxicabs use seat belts.

  Analysis

  答案:D

  逻辑单题,这是个削弱题。交通事故平均更多是与taxi有关,而大部分乘客是不系安全带的。现在如果系了安全带,taxi引起的出事率也不一定比其他交通事故的出事率低,因为开taxi或者乘坐taxi的人数基数就比乘坐其他交通方式的人数多。

  RECAP

  此次GRE阅读考试题库中所中机经题库文章两篇篇为文学评论,重理论对比,一长一短,长文章难度不小。一篇为理科,较为浅显但要细心。还中了一篇逻辑单题,为高频题型削弱题。需要大家熟练掌握课堂中讲过的三重境界,化整为零,条件反射,加之勤于练习,方可以不变应万变。

点击参与>>GRE真题练习

展开显示全文