新GRE写作包括Argument和Issue两部分,不但需要逻辑上的洞察能力,还需要论证观点的能力,语言组织的能力,因此对于中国考生来讲比较困难。为了帮助小伙伴儿们在平时的备战练习中,注意避免逻辑错误, 接下来一起来看看智课网今天带给大家的GRE写作备考资料:GRE Argument的7种逻辑错误

  1、结论无据(gratuitous assumption)

  The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that.... However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. For example, it is more likely that.... Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.

  2、无因果联系

  The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification. The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B, the former event is responsible for the latter. (The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. However, the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A caused B.) But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps C is the cause of these events or perhaps B is caused by D.

  3、样本不足(Insufficient-sample)

  The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion (The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future trends), unless it can be shown that A1 is representative of all A.

  4、二者择一(Either-Or choice)

  The author assumes that AA and BB are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground.However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both AA and BB might produce better results.

  5、错误类比(based on a false analogy ) <横向>

  The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there is much dissimilarity as well. For example, A..., however, B.... Thus, it is likely much more difficult for B to do....

  6、时地全等(all things are equal) <纵向>

  The author commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a conclusion that....The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. However, it is not clear in this argument whether the current conditions at AA are the same as they used to be two years ago. Thus it is impossible to conclude that....

  7、可疑调查(survey is doubtful)

  The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who conducted the poll,who responded, or when, where and how the poll was conducted. (Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to access the validity of the results. For example, if 200 persons were surveyed but only 2 responded, the conclusion that...would be highly suspect. Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out this kind of interpretations,) Until these questions are answered, the results of the survey are worthless as evidence for the conclusion.

  以上就是关于GRE写作Argument的7种逻辑错误的详细介绍,希望对各位考生有所帮助,小编建议大家在平时的GRE写作考试备考中能重视这些问题,有效避免这些失分点。

  TIPS:GRE写作两部分权重相同

  由于AA的写作不牵涉自己观点的展开,只须指出作者逻辑上的漏洞,因此在经过训练以后,写起来并不困难;而AI的写作需要自己展开自己设立的观点,不但需要逻辑上的洞察能力,还需要论证观点的能力,语言组织的能力,因此对于中国考生来讲比较困难,难以短期内有较大提高。但是这两个部分在总分中的权重是一样的,因此考生的策略应该是尽量提高AI部分的写作能力而力保AA部分满分(或高分)。因为如果AA部分满分的话,AI部分只需争取在4分以上 就可以保证整体作文分数在5分以上。

  以上为智课网今天带给大家的GRE写作备考资料:GRE Argument的7种逻辑错误。更多GRE精彩内容,请持续关注智课网论坛。

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