学习类型: 适应性学习、学习类型: 感受型学习、学习方法: 死记硬背、死记硬背 vs.思考、死记硬背的必要性、一种实际的学习模式、联想学习: 机器学习、联想学习: 玩耍、联想学习: 印象和观察、联想学习: 作用物条件和经典条件、质疑的好处、质疑的必要性、自省的概念、自省在科学上的作用、课程需求的多样性和变化性、终身学习的必要性、在线学习、学习的生理学、引语: 智慧。
49 学习类型: 适应性学习
In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. It isanother form of integration. An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses. One example of this can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator. Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced), the birds react to it as though it were a predator, showing that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to(namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place). Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal.
50 学习类型: 感受型学习
Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus. An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation will create a warm sensation that will eventually turn painful. The pain is the result of the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning the person that the stimulation is harmful. Sensitization is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism.
51 学习方法: 死记硬背
Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition, based on the idea that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more it is repeated. Rote learning is used in diverse areas, from mathematics to music to religion. Although it has been criticized by some schools of thought, rote learning is a necessity in many situations.
52 死记硬背 vs.思考
Rote learning is sometimes disparaged with the derogative terms parrot fashion, regurgitation, cramming, or mugging because one who engages in rote learning may give the wrong impression of having understood what they have written or said. It is strongly discouraged by many new curriculum standards. For example, science and mathematics standards in the United States specifically emphasize the importance of deep understanding over the mere recall of facts, which is seen to be less important, although advocates of traditional education have criticized the new standards as slighting learning basic facts and elementary arithmetic, and replacing content with process-based skills.
When calculators can do multidigit long division in a microsecond, graph complicated functions at the push of a button, and instantaneously calculate derivatives and integrals, serious questions arise about what is important in the mathematics curriculum and what it means to learn mathematics. More than ever, mathematics must include the mastery of concepts instead of mere memorization and the following of procedures. More than ever, school mathematics must include an understanding of how to use technology to arrive meaningfully at solutions to problems instead of endless attention to increasingly outdated computational tedium.
However, with some material, rote learning is the only way to learn it in a timely manner. For example, when learning the Greek alphabet, the vocabulary of a foreign language or the conjugation of foreign irregular verbs, there is no inner structure or their inner complexity is too subtle to be learned explicitly in a short time. However, as in the alphabet example, learning where the alphabet came from helps one to grasp the concept of it and therefore memorize it. (Native speakers and speakers with a lot of experience usually get an intuitive grasp of those subtle rules and are able to conjugate even irregular verbs that they have never heard before.)
The source transmission could be auditory or visual, and is usually in the form of short bits such as rhyming phrases(but rhyming is not a prerequisite), rather than chunks of text large enough to make lengthy paragraphs. Brevity is not always the case with rote learning. For example, many Americans can recite their National Anthem, or even the much lengthier Preamble to the United States Constitution. Their ability to do so can be attributed, at least in some part, to having been assimilated by rote learning. The repeated stimulus of hearing it recited in public, on TV, at a sporting event, etc. has caused the mere sound of the phrasing of the words and inflections to be“written”, as if hammer-to-stone, into the long-term memory.
A realistic study pattern (although it is better to find your own personal pattern) is that of a designated 2 hour session with a 5 minute break every half hour. During the 5 minutes be mindful to get away from the studying and do something that is both relaxing and different, e.g. get a breath of fresh air or a drink of water. Make sure that you end the 2 hour session whether you have completed what you have been studying or not and commit to return to that point in the next 2 hour session.
In between sessions try to do something you enjoy or something new and refreshing. It is sometimes easy to view times of study as mundane but they can also be times where you try new experiences and be creative. At first it may seem a little hard to think of things that you don’t normally do and might enjoy and it is different for everyone. Some examples may include going to the park, watching a DVD, painting a picture, going to a museum, meeting friends (but preferably not talking about study), learning a musical instrument, watching a sporting event that you do not normally attend, reading a novel, playing a new sport, etc. It is important to attempt to change a revision period to a time where you are choosing to experience new things as well as choosing to learn new things, which is a much more positive way to approach studying.
55 联想学习: 机器学习
Although learning is often thought of as a property associated with living things, computers are also able to modify their own behaviors as a result of experiences. Known as machine learning, this is a broad subfield of artificial intelligence concerned with the design and development ofalgorithms and techniques that allow computers to “learn”. At a general level, there are two typesof learning: inductive, and deductive. Inductive machine learning methods extract rules and patterns out of massive data sets.
The major focus of machine learning research is to extract information from data automatically, by computational and statistical methods. Hence, machine learning is closely related to data mining and statistics but also theoretical computer science.Machine learning has a wide spectrum of applications including natural language processing, syntactic pattern recognition, search engines, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics and cheminformatics, detecting credit card fraud, stock market analysis, classifying DNA sequences, speech and handwriting recognition, object recognition in computer vision, game playing and robot locomotion.
56 联想学习: 玩耍
Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans, but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young, which gives them experience with catching prey. Besides inanimate objects, animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals, such as orcas playing with seals they have caught. Play involves a significant cost to animals, such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk or injury and possibly infection. It also consumes energy, so there must be significant benefits associated with play for it to have evolved. Play is generally seen in younger animals, suggesting a link with learning. However, it may also have other benefits not associated directly with learning, for example improving physical fitness.
57 联想学习: 印象和观察
Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said tobe “imprinted” onto the subject.
The most basic learning process is imitation; one’s personal repetition of an observed process, such as a smile. Thus an imitation will take one’s time (attention to the details), space (a location for learning), skills (or practice), and other resources (for example, a protected area). Through copying, most infants learn how to hunt (i.e., direct one’s attention), feed and perform most basic tasks necessary for survival.
58 联想学习: 作用物条件和经典条件
Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of voluntary behavior. Discrimination learning is a major form of operant conditioning. One form of it is called Errorless Learning.
The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a particular response) with another stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the “conditioned stimulus”). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response.
Being skeptic is not a radical way of thinking, but a logical thought process. It is important for healthy skepticism to keep our minds open to new ideas, and to prevent us from becomingunthinking dogmatists with no individuality. If there were no one in the world to doubt, then we’ll all still believe the world is flat and science would never exist. Skepticism is a healthy outlook that doesn’t hinder our society, as some may have you believe, but benefits it. To begin we should define the requirements for knowledge.
However, it is possible for our senses to trick us. The skeptic argument is that if we can believe we are awake when we are in fact dreaming in our beds, then we can be dreaming at any moment and not know it. In this way, our senses are tricking us. When we hear something in our dream, there is nothing actually making that noise, it is something we only think we hear because we are dreaming. In our dreams we can have any sensual experience we perceive while we are awake, yet while we are dreaming, we are being fooled by our senses into thinking things that do not exist are real. Since all our information about the world comes from our senses, and our senses can fool us at any time, we can therefore never be sure we have any knowledge about the world. The Epistemist may again argue this point, delivering ways of deciphering whether or not you are truly experiencing something or hallucinating through a dream, such as another’s testimony. However, many magicians make their living by performing illusions in front of large audiences. In this case everyone experiences the same illusion, yet none of them know the truth. If you have ever been deceived by someone, perhaps even someone you have trusted for a long period of time, you know that it is much harder to trust that person from that point on. Many people would in fact choose not to believe a word that came out of that person’s mouth ever again. If that person has lied to you once, then surely the possibility of them lying to you again is not out of the question. The same can be applied to just about anything in life. If as a child you touched a hotplate and ended up burning your hand, chances are you will be careful before touching it again, making sure you have sufficient evidence that it is not turned on. Why then, do we put such infinite trust in our senses that have also wronged us on occasion? Since we can prove that it is possible for our senses to deceive us, therefore it is always possible that they are deceiving us. Thus, we are forced to be skeptic about whether or not we can really know something, or if we are merely being fooled by our own senses.
Introspection is the self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations. It is a conscious mental and usually purposive process relying on thinking, reasoning, and examining one’s own thoughts, feelings, and, in more spiritual cases, one’s soul. It can also be called contemplation of one’s self, and is contrasted with extrospection, the observation of things external to one’s self. Introspection may be used synonymously with self-reflection and used in a similar way.
Behaviorists claimed that introspection was unreliable and that the subject matter of scientific psychology should be strictly operationalized in an objective and measurable way. This then led psychology to focus on measurable behavior rather than consciousness or sensation. Cognitive psychology accepts the use of the scientific method, but rejects introspection as a valid method of investigation for this reason. It should be noted that Herbert Simon and Allen Newell identified the“thinking-aloud” protocol, in which investigators view a subject engaged in introspection, and who speaks his thoughts aloud, thus allowing study of his introspection.
On the other hand, introspection can be considered a valid tool for the development of scientific hypotheses and theoretical models, in particular, in cognitive sciences and engineering. In practice, functional ( goal-oriented ) computational modeling and computer simulation design of meta-reasoning and metacognition are closely connected with the introspective experiences of researchers and engineers.
Introspection was used by German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt in the experimental psychology laboratory he had founded in Leipzig in 1879. Wundt believed that by using introspection in his experiments he would gather information into how the subjects’ minds were working, thus he wanted to examine the mind into its basic elements. Wundt did not invent this way of looking into an individual’s mind through their experiences; rather, it can date to Socrates. Wundt’s distinctive contribution was to take this method into the experimental arena and thus into the newly formed field of psychology.
Today in such a changing society it would be impossible to have a national curriculum not reflecting such change. Living in a changing environment effects and changes what each individual in the state is expected to know. This is very much enlightened when living in a fast changing world where what was true yesterday turns to be false tomorrow. Who would ever thought taught that the word Internet would have been mentioned in the National Minimum Curriculum in the late 1980s and early 1990s when it was still just a network with the aim of linking data between major Universities and in no one’s vocabulary? Such change in education may be one aspect that has contributed to the philosophy adopted for the change in the national curriculum and this change has been designed with a clear vision in mind.
Till some years ago, it was enough to have fathers teach their skills to their son and mothers to their daughters; they again would repeat the process with their children and so on. Even still, it is not the case of having the child learning something different from the parent. Today, it’s the case that what the child learns is different throughout all stages in life. This takes us to lifelong learning. As discussed during the lectures today, this is a fact of life. If you don’t learn, you don’t survive, economically, socially and all the rest. Such vision is shown throughout the curriculum.
Today we need to give skills to our pupils amongst which the skill of learning, that is, knowing how to learn, is the most important. Such vision will require teaching how to access information and where to find it rather than giving out information in itself. We need to teach how to use the Internet that is the biggest resource. More areas that such curriculum vision would require within society would be teaching how to use libraries, having social skills, interact and share. The teachers should help in social management skills. This NMC does not encourage traditional teaching, as it isn’t concerned about teaching skills but teaching facts. Such approach would require a change in the methods the teachers use.
If we are having examinations designed for society, we need to have the teaching resources that also reflect our curriculum’s vision. On the other hand, we should not only focus on the inside view of society, but should also follow the effect our education may have from its politicalenvironment and social-economic aspects as well mentioned at the objectives of the NMC.
By 2006, nearly 3.5 million students were participating in online learning at institutions of higher education in the United States. Many higher education, for-profit institutions, now offer online classes. By contrast, only about half of private, nonprofit schools offer them. The Sloan report, based on a poll of academic leaders, says that students generally appear to be at least as satisfied with their online classes as they are with traditional ones. Private Institutions may become more involved with online presentations as the cost of instituting such a system decreases. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. These staff members must be able to not only understand the content area, but also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities.
Thought, in a general sense, is commonly conceived as something arising from the stimulation of neurons in the brain. Current understanding of neurons and the central nervous system implies that the process of learning corresponds to changes in the relationship between certain neurons in the brain. Research is ongoing in this area.
It is generally recognized that memory is more easily retained when multiple parts of the brain are stimulated, such as through combinations of hearing, seeing, smelling, motor skills, touch sense, and logical thinking.
Repeating thoughts and actions is an essential part of learning. Thinking about a specific memory will make it easy to recall. This is the reason why reviews are such an integral part of education. On first performing a task, it is difficult as there is no path from axon to dendrite. After several repetitions a pathway begins to form and the task becomes easier. When the task becomes so easy that you can perform it at any time, the pathway is fully formed. The speed at which a pathway is formed depends on the individual, but is usually localized resulting in talents.
67 引语: 智慧
“Wise men say nothing in dangerous times.”—Aesop
“When I was a boy of fourteen, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be twenty-one, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.”—Mark Twain
“I hope our wisdom will grow with our power, and teach us, that the less we use our power thegreater it will be.”—Thomas Jefferson
“Patience is the companion of wisdom.”—St. Augustine
“Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to saysomething.”—Plato
“Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers.”—Alfred Lord Tennyson
“It requires wisdom to understand wisdom: the music is nothing if the audience is deaf.”—Walter Lippmann
“All I know is that I know nothing.”—Socrates