1. In the last two hundreds years, the practice of archaeology has changed greatly, from digging up ancient artifacts for use by wealthy individuals as art objects to analyzing the detritus of everyday life in the laboratory, and thus from _______ to data collection.
D. treasure hunting
E. scientific discovery
2. The identity of hominid remains found in a cave in the Altai Mountains was _______ until Paabo and his colleagues ended the speculation by showing that DNA sequences indicated the bones belonged to Neanderthals.
3. The documentation of Earth’s biodiversity is complicated by the (i)_______ taxonomists. Those experts in classifying species tend to be (ii)_______ North American and Europe, whereas most of the undocumented biodiversity is likely in the tropics.
A. uneven distribution of
B. theoretical commitments of
C. professional rivalries among
D. clustered in
E. oblivious to
F. exported from
4. For decades, economic ideas have been (i)_______ political purpose. Economists, for example, have peddled their theories as a way of gaining public prominence or political appointment, while politicians have (ii)_______ economic doctrines as possible solutions to the nation’s social problems.
A. undermined by
B. inspired by
C. exploited by
5. Computers make it spectacularly easy to search for particular pieces of information in download texts. And doing research in this strategic, targeted manner can feel (i) _______. Instead of (ii) _______ the organizing logic of the book you are reading, you can approach the book with your own questions and (iii) _______. You, not the author, are the master.
E. surrendering to
G. begin to discern the author’s intent
H. glean precisely what you want from it
I. evaluate the book on its own terms
6. There are two opposing theories about mountain formation and climate over the past 40 million years: either the surge of mountain building (i)_______ the global cooling, or vice versa. The first of these two theories asserts that widespread mountain building cooled the earth as a result of (ii)_______ mountains and climate. For example, mountain glaciers tend to be (iii)_______: once established, they increase the reflectivity of the surface, thus lowering temperatures and allowing more ice to form.
D. disparity between
E. feedback between
F. complexity of
7. If giant X-ray flares churn circumstellar disks enough to keep newborn plants, such as Earth once was, from spiraling into their suns, it would be an ironic twist on our conception of X-ray flares as _______.
8. Despite their cultural and social significance, rapid growth, and widespread appeal in China, video games — unlike traditional media — have received _______ attention from international communication researches.
9. Although Wynne claims to recognize that _______ evidence is available to make definitive statement, she offers them nonetheless, arriving at some sweeping generalizations.
10. Although the biography never explicitly assesses what role the dynamic between Mr. Merrill’s parents might have played in the development of his personality, the author offers plenty of _______.