1.Order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of people of nominal—some even say symbolic—importance, practiced by sundry organizations and governments. One's position in an order of precedence does not unequivocally indicate one's responsibilities; rather, it reflects ceremonial or historic relevance; for instance, order of precedence may dictate where a host seats dignitaries at formal diners. Moreover, order of precedence potentially determines the order of succession for heads of state removed from office or incapacitated, although the two terms are not often interchangeable. Universities and the professions frequently have their own rules of precedence, applied parochially and based on professional rank, with each rank being ordered within itself by seniority, meaning the date one attains that rank.
2.The author of this passage would agree with which of the following statements about order of precedence:
A. A country's order of precedence may have no official status but may be a symbolic hierarchy used to direct protocol.
B. General orders of precedence may be regarded as default rules on which almost all orders of precedence for events or institutions are based.
C. A university's specific order of precedence is based on merit and has no official status.
3.Ragwort was accidentally introduced to New Zealand in the late nineteenth century and, like so many invading foreign species, quickly became a pest. By the 1920s, the weed was rampant. What made matters worse was that its proliferation coincided with sweeping changes in agriculture and a massive shift from sheep farming to dairying.
Ragwort contains a battery of toxic and resilient alkaloids: even honey made from its flowers contains the poison in dilute form. Livestock generally avoid grazing where ragwort is growing, but they will do so once it displaces grass and clover in their pasture. Though sheep can eat it for months before showing any signs of illness, if cattle eat it they sicken quickly, and fatality can even result.
The passage suggests that the proliferation of ragwort was particularly ill-timed because it
A. coincided with and exacerbated a decline in agriculture
B. took place in conditions that enabled the ragwort to spread faster than it otherwise would have done
C. led to an increase in the amount of toxic compounds contained in the plants
D. prevented people from producing honey that could be eaten safely
E. had consequences for livestock that were more dramatic than they otherwise would have been.