大家都知道在GRE写作中,Agument部分要求考生对给出的观点进行反驳,这部分要求考生有缜密的思维能力,为了帮助大家更好的备考GRE Agument。本文小编为大家带来了GRE-Agument题库及翻译第五部分。

  1. The following appeared in an article written by Dr. Karp, an anthropologist.

  "Twenty years ago, Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the island of Tertia and concluded from his observations that children in Tertia were reared by an entire village rather than by their own biological parents. However, my recent interviews with children living in the group of islands that includes Tertia show that these children spend much more time talking about their biological parents than about other adults in the village. This research of mine proves that Dr. Field's conclusion about Tertian village culture is invalid and thus that the observation-centered approach to studying cultures is invalid as well. The interview-centered method that my team of graduate students is currently using in Tertia will establish a much more accurate understanding of child-rearing traditions there and in other island cultures."

  下面这段文字出自人类学家Dr. Karp的一篇文章。

  20年前著名人类学家Field博士访问了Tertia岛,并从他的观察得出结论:Tertia的儿童是由整个村庄的人抚养长大的而不是由他们的双亲。然而,我最近对包含Tertia的一组岛屿上生活的儿童的采访显示,这些儿童的谈话中谈到他们双亲的时间要远多于谈到村庄中其他成年人的时间。这个研究证实了Field博士关于Tertia村庄文化的结论是错误的,因而这种以观察为中心的研究文化的方法是无效的。由于我在Tertia工作的研究生们所用的是以采访为中心的方式,他们将对那里以及其他岛屿文化的儿童抚养传统建立精确的多的了解。

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

  2. According to a recent report, cheating among college and university students is on the rise. However, Groveton College has successfully reduced student cheating by adopting an honor code, which calls for students to agree not to cheat in their academic endeavors and to notify a faculty member if they suspect that others have cheated. Groveton's honor code replaced a system in which teachers closely monitored students; under that system, teachers reported an average of thirty cases of cheating per year. In the first year the honor code was in place, students reported twenty-one cases of cheating; five years later, this figure had dropped to fourteen. Moreover, in a recent survey, a majority of Groveton students said that they would be less likely to cheat with an honor code in place than without. Thus, all colleges and universities should adopt honor codes similar to Groveton's in order to decrease cheating among students.

  根据最近的一份报告,大中专院校中的作弊风气有所抬头。然而,Groveton College通过一种诚信体制成功地减少了作弊现象的发生,这一体制要求学生同意在学业中不作弊,并且当他们怀疑别人作弊的时候通知老师。Groveton的诚信制度代替了原有的学生被老师严密监视的老体制。在老体制中平均每年有30起作弊被上报。在新体制实施的第一年,学生上报了21起作弊事件;五年后,这一数值下降到了14起。而且,在最近一次调查中,大部分学生说有了诚信制度他们更加不太可能作弊。因此,所有的大中专院校都应该采取类似Groveton College的诚信体制。

  Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation.

  3. The following appeared in an article written by Dr. Karp, an anthropologist.

  "Twenty years ago, Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the island of Tertia and concluded from his observations that children in Tertia were reared by an entire village rather than by their own biological parents. However, my recent interviews with children living in the group of islands that includes Tertia show that these children spend much more time talking about their biological parents than about other adults in the village. This research of mine proves that Dr. Field's conclusion about Tertian village culture is invalid and thus that the observation-centered approach to studying cultures is invalid as well. The interview-centered method that my team of graduate students is currently using in Tertia will establish a much more accurate understanding of child-rearing traditions there and in other island cultures."

  下面这段文字出自人类学家Dr. Karp的一篇文章。

  20年前著名人类学家Field博士访问了Tertia岛,并从他的观察得出结论:Tertia的儿童是由整个村庄的人抚养长大的而不是由他们的双亲。然而,我最近对包含Tertia的一组岛屿上生活的儿童的采访显示,这些儿童的谈话中谈到他们双亲的时间要远多于谈到村庄中其他成年人的时间。这个研究证实了Field博士关于Tertia村庄文化的结论是错误的,因而这种以观察为中心的研究文化的方法是无效的。由于我在Tertia工作的研究生们所用的是以采访为中心的方式,他们将对那里以及其他岛屿文化的儿童抚养传统建立精确的多的了解。

  Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted.

  4. A recently issued twenty-year study on headaches suffered by the residents of Mentia investigated the possible therapeutic effect of consuming salicylates. Salicylates are members of the same chemical family as aspirin, a medicine used to treat headaches. Although many foods are naturally rich in salicylates, food-processing companies also add salicylates to foods as preservatives. The twenty-year study found a correlation between the rise in the commercial use of salicylates and a steady decline in the average number of headaches reported by study participants. At the time when the study concluded, food-processing companies had just discovered that salicylates can also be used as flavor additives for foods, and, as a result, many companies plan to do so. Based on these study results, some health experts predict that residents of Mentia will suffer even fewer headaches in the future.

  最近发表的一项持续了20年的对Mentia居民头痛病的研究指出了使用salicylates可能存在的治疗效果。Salicylates和阿司匹林属于同一化学家族,是一种治疗头痛的药。虽然很多食物本身富含salicylates,食品加工厂仍然添加salicylates作为防腐剂。这一持续了20年的研究发现salicylates在商业用途的增长和被调查者平均头痛次数的稳定减少之间存在联系。当研究结束时,食品加工厂刚刚发现salicylates也可以用来作为食品调味添加剂,并且很多厂家准备这样做。基于这些研究结果,健康专家预测Mentia居民的头痛病将来会更少。

  Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the prediction.

  5. The following was written as a part of an application for a small-business loan by a group of developers in the city of Monroe.

  "A jazz music club in Monroe would be a tremendously profitable enterprise. Currently, the nearest jazz club is 65 miles away; thus, the proposed new jazz club in Monroe, the C-Note, would have the local market all to itself. Plus, jazz is extremely popular in Monroe: over 100,000 people attended Monroe's annual jazz festival last summer; several well-known jazz musicians live in Monroe; and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is 'Jazz Nightly,' which airs every weeknight at 7 P.M. Finally, a nationwide study indicates that the typical jazz fan spends close to $1,000 per year on jazz entertainment."

  下面这段文字节选自Monroe市一群创业者申请小企业贷款的申请书。

  在Monroe建立爵士乐俱乐部将会是非常盈利的产业。当前,最近的爵士俱乐部也在65英里以外;因此,我们筹建的俱乐部C Note将会占有全部的本地市场。而且,爵士乐在Monroe非常流行:去年夏天10万多人参加了Monroe的爵士音乐节,若干知名爵士音乐家居住在Monroe,Monroe获评价最高的广播节目是平时每天播出的Jazz Nightly。最后,一项全国性研究表明典型的爵士爱好者每年花费近1000元用于爵士娱乐。

  Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument.

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