57. Free public education is the best form of education there is. Therefore, we must fight to ensure its continued existence; that is, we must be ready to defend the principle of equality of educational opportunity. Because this principle is well worth defending, it is clear that free public education is better than any other form of education.
Which one of the following illustrates the same weak reasoning as found in the passage?
A. I love music, and that’s why I listen to it constantly. I have my stereo or radio on every waking minute. Since I lay music all the time, I must really love it.
B. Books are my most valuable possessions. My books are like my friends---each pleases me in different ways. Just as I would give up everything to save my friends, so too with my books.
C. I would much rather be poor and respected than be rich and despises. To have the respect of others is far more valuable than to have millions of dollars.
D. I have never been betrayed by any of my friends. They have been true to me through good times and bad. Therefore I will never betray any of my friends.
E. Because every plant I have ever seen has green leaves, I have concluded that all plants must have green leaves. This looks like a plant but it does not have green leaves, so it cannot be a plant.
A. 选项中，因为爱音乐总开着音响;又以开音响为事实，证明自己爱音乐;这和原题中的逻辑错误相似。原题中，因为公共教育好所以要维护该项制度;又以努力维护制度为事实，证明公共教育好。The fallacy in the passage is circle——自说自话。The best answer is A.
58. Some people say that the scarcity of food is a function of the finite limits of the earth’s resources, coupled with a relentless rate of population growth. This analysis fails to recognize, however, that much of the world’s agricultural resources are used to feed livestock instead of people. In the United States, for example, almost one-half of the agricultural acreage is devoted to crops fed to livestock. A steer reduces twenty-one pounds of inexpensive grain to one pound of expensive meat. Thus, the scarcity of food is not merely a function of limited resources and population growth.
Which one of the following is an assumption that would allow the conclusion in the argument to be properly drawn?
A. People prefer eating meat to eating grain.
B. Meat is twenty-one times more expensive than grain.
C. The limits of the earth’s agricultural resources are not finite.
D. More than one-half of the agricultural acreage in the United States is devoted to drops fed to humans.
E. Growing crops for human consumption on the acreage currently devoted to crops for livestock will yield more food for more people.
E is the best answer. 喂养牲畜消耗的粮食为人们创造更多的食物。(题目内容是：有观点认为食物缺乏是因为土地资源有限而人口数量却不断增多。但作者认为该观点忽视了农产品中有相当大一部分是用来喂家畜的。在美国几乎有一半土地的粮食是为了养家畜。1磅肉要用去21磅廉价的谷物。因此，食物缺乏不仅是因为土地资源有限而人口数量却不断增多。)根据题目要求，我们只须反驳养家畜对粮食紧缺造成的影响。选项A中即使人们爱吃肉只会引起更多的粮食消耗，不能反驳作者; B并不能充分改变人们的取向;C强词夺理;D重复事实。
59. Top college graduates are having more difficulty demonstrating their superiority to prospective employers than did the top students of twenty years ago when an honors degree was distinction enough. Today’s employers are less impressed with the honors degree. Twenty years ago no more than 10 percent of a given class graduated with honors. Today, however, because of grade inflation, the honors degree goes to more than 50 percent of a graduating class. Therefore, to restore confidence in the degrees they award, colleges must take steps to control grade inflation.
Which one of the following is an assumption that, if true, would support the conclusion in the passage?
A. Today’s students are not higher achievers than the students of twenty years ago.
B. Awarding too many honors degrees causes colleges to inflate grades.
C. Today’s employers rely on honors ranking in making their hiring decisions.
D. It is not easy for students with low grades to obtain jobs.
E. Colleges must make employers aware of the criteria used to determine who receives an honor degree.
The best answer is A. 如果现在的优秀学生数量比20年前多，那么授予更多的honor degree就很正常了，也许除了荣誉学位，学生应该用别的方面来证明自己。所以只有当现在的学生素质不值得被授予象20年前那样的荣誉学位的时候，整个论证才有道理。
60. One of the more reliable methods of determining regional climatic conditions in prehistoric periods is to examine plant pollen trapped in glacial ice during ancient times. By comparing such pollen samples with spores take from modern vegetation, scientists can figure out approximately what the weather was like at the time of pollen deposition. Furthermore, by submitting the prehistoric samples to radiocarbon dating techniques, we can also determine when certain climatic conditions were prevalent in that portion of the globe.
Which one of the following may be inferred from the information in the passage?
A. The earth has undergone several glacial periods.
B. Radiocarbon dating can be corroborated by glacial evidence.
C. Similarities between prehistoric and contemporary climates do not exist.
D. Pollen deposition is a fairly continuous process.
E. Certain flora are reliably associated with particular climatic conditions.
INFERENCE question is very similar to ASSUMPTION in that both are required conditions in the argument. So inference is not a conclusion itself of the argument. It is one condition that must be true for the conclusion to hold. The line of reasoning can be as follows:
Argument: A B. Ask for inference C. The links are A B C. Or Not C Not B. A and B are the premise and conclusion in the argument respectively. C is the inference.
No. 60 is a good example. What the passage says is that scientists can figure out the weather condition in ancient times by examine the pollen from those times. So the hidden premise is that there is a connection between groups of plants and climatic conditions. If E is not true, and there is no connection between plants and climatic conditions, the statement that scientists can find out the climatic conditions by studying pollen can not hold.
So, for INFERENCE questions, you should treat it the same way as ASSUMTION question. First, understand the conclusion, or the statement in this question. And find the REQUIRED condition in the choices. To test the answer, use “NOT” and put it back in the argument to see if conclusion still holds.
Let’s take a look at the rest of the choices.
A: Irrelevant. Scientist can use pollen to find out the climatic conditions no matter how many times the earth has undergone glacial periods. When you see a choice with words expressing “degree” or “times” like rarely, most, many, less, several, probably, very, none, etc., pay attention to what the passage says. You need to make sure that these words can be inferred from the passage.
B. Irrelevant. The argument says that using radiocarbon on the samples can get further information. What B says is that glacial evidence supports radiocarbon dating. In another words, glacial evidence proves what radiocarbon dating finds out. It is not hinted by the argument or required for the conclusion.
C. Irrelevant to the statement. Use “not” to test.
D. Looks like an answer. But the statement is not about the continuity of climatic conditions. So D is irrelevant.