51. People who have political power tend to see new technologies as a means of extending or protecting their power, whereas they generally see new ethical arguments and ideas as a threat to it. Therefore, technical ingenuity usually brings benefits to those who have this ingenuity, whereas ethical inventiveness brings only pain to those who have this inventiveness.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A.Those who offer new ways of justifying current political power often reap the benefits of their own innovations.
B.Politically powerful people tend to reward those who they believe are useful to them and to punish those who they believe are a threat.
C.Ethical inventiveness and technical ingenuity are never possessed by the same individuals
D.New technologies are often used by people who strive to defeat those who currently have political power.
E.Many people who possess ethical inventiveness conceal their novel ethical arguments for fear of retribution by the politically powerful.
B is correct. The passage reaches the conclusion that technical ingenuity usually brings benefits to those who have this ingenuity, whereas ethical inventiveness brings only pain to those who have this inventiveness. However the only reason is that People who have political power tend to see new technologies as a means of extending or protecting their power, whereas they generally see new ethical arguments and ideas as a threat to it. From the reason to the conclusion, there is a jump of concept. We need a link for the 2 concepts: people who have political power and the ingenuity. Choice B, by establishing the link, provides the strongest support. Choice B is actually an assumption for the argument.
A, C does not bear on the reasoning of the passage. D weakens the argument. E does not concern, because what many people do has nothing to do with the conclusion.
52. Birds need so much food energy to maintain their body temperatures that some of them spend most of their time eating. But a comparison of a bird of a seed-eating species to a bird of a nectar-eating species that has the same overall energy requirement would surely show that the seed-eating bird spends more time eating than does the nectar-eating bird, since a given amount of nectar provides more energy than does the same amount of seeds
The argument relies on which one of the following questionable assumptions
A.Birds of different species do not generally have the same overall energy requirements as each other
B.The nectar-eating bird does not sometimes also eat seeds
C.The time it takes for the nectar-eating bird to eat a given amount of nectar is not longer than the time it takes the seed-eating bird to eat the same amount of seeds
D.The seed-eating bird does not have a lower body temperature than that of the nectar-eating bird
E.The overall energy requirements of a given bird do not depend on factors such as the size of the bird, its nest-building habits; and the climate of the region in which it lives
这就是一个排除它因型假设呀!为什么一定要去反呢在去看呢，好像这里好多网友都在这么做。 即使取反，那肯定削弱了原来命题：它因存在，不是吃得多，而是吃得慢造成的时间花费差异。--- dorbear
Nectar鸟和seed鸟需要能量一样多，但nectar食物单个能量大，所以nectar鸟吃的数量少。结论：nectar鸟吃东西花的时间少。 使以上必然成立的条件(assumption)是nectar鸟一定吃的更快，不然还是有可能花的时间比seed鸟多。和C相反，所以c questionable。---- seanql
53. When investigators discovered that the director of a local charity had repeatedly overstated the number of people his charity had helped, the director accepted responsibility for the deception. However, the investigators claims that journalists were as much to blame as the director was for inflating the charity’s reputation, since they had naively accepted what the director told them, and simply reported as fact the numbers he gave them.
Which one of the following principles, if valid, most helps to justify the investigators’ claim
A.Anyone who works for a charitable organization is obliged to be completely honest about the activities of that organization.
B.Anyone who knowingly aids a liar by trying to conceal the truth from others is also a liar.
C.Anyone who presents as factual a story that turns out to be untrue without first attempting to verify that story is no less responsible for the consequences of that story than anyone else is.
D.Anyone who lies in order to advance his or her own career is more deserving of blame than someone who lies in order to promote a good cause.
E.Anyone who accepts responsibility for a wrongful act that he or she committed is less deserving of blame than someone who tries to conceal his or her own wrongdoing.
对作者的论述，进行简单归纳形成加强。Anyone who presents as factual a story that turns out to be untrue without first attempting to verify that story is no less responsible for the consequences of that story than anyone else is.
54. Telephone companies are promoting “voice mail” as an alternative to the answering machine. By recording messages from callers when a subscriber does not have access to his or her telephone, voice mail provides a service similar to that of an answering machine. The companies promoting this service argue that it will soon make answering machines obsolete, since it is much more convenient, more flexible, and less expensive than an answering machine.
Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the argument made by the companies promoting voice mail?
A.Unlike calls made to owners of answering machines, all telephone calls made to voice-mail subscribers are completed, even if the line called is in use at the time of the call.
B.The surge in sales of answering machines occurred shortly after they were first introduced to the electronics market.
C.Once a telephone customer decides to subscribe to voice mail, that customer can cancel the service at any time.
D.Answering machines enable the customer to hear who is calling before the customer decides whether to answer the telephone, a service voice mail does not provide.
E.The number of messages a telephone answering machine can record is limited by the length of the magnetic tape on which calls are recorded
思路: 段落论述X方式(voice mail)在某些方面的优点大于Y方式(answering machine), 将会导致Y的过时, 此时weaken的方向在于找出X劣于Y的缺点,或Y优于X的优点.
C.无关选项, 客户可在任何时间取消voice mail, 无X,Y的优劣比较
D.正确, 提出了answering machine优于voice mail的优点.
The simple facts are these: the number of people killed each year by bears is about the same as the number of people killed by lightning of golf courses. And the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is about the same as the number of people electrocuted by electric blenders. All the horrible myths and gruesome stories aside, therefore a grizzly bear is in fact about as dangerous as an electric blender or a game of golf.
55. Which one of the following is an assumption that the author relies upon in the passage?
A.Most incidents involving grizzly bears are fatal.
B.Grizzly bears are no longer the danger they once were.
C.The number of fatalities per year is an adequate indication of something’s dangerousness.
D.A golf course is a particularly dangerous place to be in a thunderstorm.
E.Something is dangerous only if it results in death in the majority of cases.
思路: 搭桥法, 建立A与B的联系. 文章由三种情况导致people的死亡数量相同的事实推理到此三种情况的危险度相同,此时要找出死亡数量与危险度的关系.
A, B, D分别讲述了grizzly bear的伤害是致命的, grizzly bear 不再危险, golf course是雷击的特殊情况, 没有提及死亡数量与危险度的关系, 属无关选项.
E强调只有在大多数cases中出现死亡才为危险, 与A, B比较无关,
56. Which one of the following, if true, would most effectively undermine the author’s argument?
A.Although the number of people killed by lightning on golf courses each year is very small, the total number of lightning fatalities is many times greater.
B.Electric blenders are among the safest housed hold appliances; were the author to compare fatalities from electrical appliances in general, she would get a much higher figure.
C.Most people would rather take their chances with benders and golf games than with grizzly bears.
D.Bears in general---including black, brown, and cinnamon bears, as well as grizzly bears---kill many more people than do electric blenders.
E.Statistics show that the number of times people use electric blenders each year exceeds the number of times people play golf each year, which in turn far exceeds the number of contacts people have with grizzly bears each year.
A: 无关选项, 被电击致死的总数量与因lightning on golf courses致死的数量比较, 属无关比较.
B: 无关选项, 其他electrical appliance的死亡数量更高, 与比较无关.
C: 大多数人的态度, 无关选项
D: 熊比electric blender杀的人多, 无关比较.
E: 正确, 人们接触某种情况的时间 (机会) 越多 (大), 其危险度越高.