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7. Problems caused by the leaching of pollutants from dumps and landfills are worst in countries with an annual per capita economic output of $4,000 to$5,000, and less severe for considerably poorer and considerably richer countries. This is so because pollution problems increase during the early stages of a country’s industrial development but then diminish as increasing industrial development generates adequate resources to tackle such problems. Therefore, problems caused by such leaching in Country X, where the annual per capita economic output is now $5,000, should begin to diminish in the next few years. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A.Within the next few years, Country X will impose a system of fines for illegal waste disposal by its industrial companies. B.Countries surrounding Country X will reduce the amount of pollution that their factories release into the air and water. C.Industrial development in Country X will increase in the next few years. D.Country X will begin the process of industrialization in the next few years. E.No other country with a similar amount of industrial development has pollution problems that are as severe as those in Country X. Principle: Problems caused by the leaching of pollutants from dumps and landfills are worst in countries with an annual per capita economic output of$4,000 to $5,000, and less severe for considerably poorer and considerably richer countries. Premise: (大前提)pollution problems increase during the early stages of a country’s industrial development but then diminish as increasing industrial development generates adequate resources to tackle such problems，用来支持最后的 conclusion: : problems in Country X should begin to diminish in the next few years. Evidence: in Country X, where the annual per capita economic output is now$5,000,

Conclusion: problems in Country X should begin to diminish in the next few years.

是对 premise 的一次改写。

Hidden Assumption: The industrial development in Country X will increase in the next years so that its economic output will be more than \$5,000, it passes over the early stage of industrial development and has adequate resources to tackle leaching problems.

题目问Assumption, 即必要条件。 只有这个必要条件成立，结论才能成立(A->B ) 。没有这个必要条件，结论是不可能成立的(非B-> 非A)

A. 高额的罚款并不是country X抯 problem will diminish. 的必要条件。因为如果由公司从自身的经济利益出发，宁愿选择接受罚款，则结论不成立。

B. out of scope

C. Correct Answer. 正符合我们的 Assumption.

D. Weaken the conclusion --- because that pollution problems increase during the early stages of a country’s industrial development (early stages == begin the process of industrialization)

E. 时间不一致，(一般现在式与begin to diminish in the next few years.)

比较对象不对。(Other country 与 Country X vs. Country X 现在 与 未来)

8. The stable functioning of a society depends upon the relatively long-term stability of the goals of its citizens. This is clear from the fact that unless the majority of individuals have a predictable and enduring set of aspirations, it will be impossible for a legislature to craft laws that will augment the satisfaction of the citizenry, and it should be obvious that a society is stable only if its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens.

The claim that a society is stable only if its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens plays which one of the following roles in the argument?

A.It is the conclusion of the argument.

B.It helps to support the conclusion of the argument. 正确答案

C.It is a claim that must be refuted if the conclusion is to be established.

D.It is a consequence of the argument.

E.It is used to illustrate the general principle that the argument presupposes.

这是一个典型的必要题型，题目之所以觉得有难度，

因为conclusion 在首而论证过程在后，而且还有概念的等价交换：to increase the happiness of its citizens　==to augment the satisfaction of the citizenry

Conclusion: The stable functioning of a society depends upon the relatively long-term stability of the goals of its citizens.

it should be obvious that a society is stable only if its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens.

A society is stable (a) its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens. (b)

This is clear from the fact that unless the majority of individuals have a predictable and enduring set of aspirations, it will be impossible for a legislature to craft laws that will augment the satisfaction of the citizenry,

To craft laws that will augment the satisfaction of the citizenry (b) the majority of individuals have a predictable and enduring set of aspirations, (c)

Therefore, A requires C. (the conclusion)

看懂文章后，不难得到正确答案B.

9. Astronauts who experience weightlessness frequently get motion sickness. The astronauts see their own motion relative to passing objects, but while the astronauts are weightless their inner ears indicate that their bodies are not moving. The astronauts’ experience is best explained by the hypothesis that conflicting information received by the brain about the body’s motion causes motion sickness.

Which one of the following, if true, provides the strongest additional support for the hypothesis above?

A.During rough voyages ship passengers in cabins providing a view of the water are less likely to get motion sickness than are passengers in cabins providing no view.

B.Many people who are experienced airplane passengers occasionally get motion sickness.

C.Some automobile passengers whose inner ears indicate that they are moving and who have a clear view of the objects they are passing get motion sickness.

D.People who have aisle seats in trains or airplanes are as likely to get motion sickness as are people who have window seats.

E.Some astronauts do not get motion sickness even after being in orbit for several days.

答案：A

思路：搭桥法，建立A与B的联系。仔细读题可知：这种运动性疾病是由于大脑接受了不同的矛盾的信息。有两个信息源：一个来自内耳(静止)，一个来自眼睛(运动)。

选项中只有A,C,D涉及这样两个信息源。

A指出接受两种不同的信息较容易获得运动性疾病比起获得两种一致的信息。C：虽有两种信息，但两者是一致的(都是运动的)。

C, D：指出接受两种一致的信息较容易获得运动性疾病比起获得两种不同的信息。与题目的例子相反。所以只有A是正确选项。

10. In order to pressure the government of Country S to become less repressive, some legislators in Country R want to ban all exports from R to S. Companies in R that manufacture telecommunication equipment such as telephones and fax machines have argued that exports of their products should be exempted from the ban, on the ground that it is impossible for a country to remain repressive when telecommunication equipment is widely available to the population of that country.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument given by the manufacturers depends?

A.The government of S has recently increased the amount of telecommunication equipment it allows to be imported into the country.

B.The telecommunication equipment that would be imported into S if the exemption were to be granted would not be available solely to top development officials in S. 正确答案

C.A majority of the members of R’s legislature do not favor exempting telecommunication equipment from the ban on exports to Country S.

D.Of all exports that could be sent to Country S, telecommunication equipment would be the most effective in helping citizens of S oppose that country’s repressive government.

E.Without pressure from Country R, the government of S would be able to continue repressing its citizens indefinitely.

The correct answer is B.

See: Assumption question

Think: I have to find the conclusion, then the evidence, and from them figure out the central assumption.

Do:

Conclusion: The “what” of an argument

In this case:

In order to pressure the government of Country S to become less repressive, some legislators in Country R want to ban all exports from R to S.

Evidence: The “Why” of an argument

In this case:

It’s impossible for a country to remain repressive when telecommunication equipment is widely available to the population of that country.

Assumption: Facts or ideas, not stated in the passage. The assumption must be true if the argument is to be considered valid. The assumption typical directly links the evidence with the conclusion. The best way to tackle it is to negate it.

In this case:

The telecommunication equipment that would be imported into S if the exemption were to be granted would not be available solely to top development officials in S.

If we negate the assumption, the conclusion can’t come to pass.

:

The telecommunication equipment that would be allowed to export into S (exempted) would be AVAILABLE SOLELY to top development officials in S, then the proposal to pressure the government of Country S to become less repressive by using ban will be failed. As a result, the argument that manufacture gave that telecommunication equipment such as telephones and fax machines have argued that exports of their products should be exempted from the ban will be failed.