The keyindividuals invariably(始终如一的) provide the initial spark for thosesociological trends. for instance Prevailing(流行的)attitude about sexual morality stem from the idea of key religious leaders, anda culture’s prevailing values concerning human life are often rooted in thepolicies and prejudices of political leaders.
It is the famousfew that provide vision of the future, vision that groups then bring tofruitful.
Whether certain means are justifiable inreaching a goal must be determined on a case-by-casebasis, by weighing the benefits of attainingthe goal against the costs, or harm, that might accrue along the way. This applies equally to individual goals andto societal goals
Clearly, determining the worthiness of such goalsrequires that we confront moral dilemmas困境, which we each solve individually--based on our own conscience,value system, and notions of fairness and equity. …Both issues underscore/emphasize强调 the fact that theworthiness of a societal goal cannot be considered apart from the means andadverse consequences of attaining that goal.
Consider thepolitician whose goal is to be elected to office in order to serve the needs ofthe people while this would seem to be laudable值得称赞的 goal, perhapssomething more sinister lurks underneath，such as the lust for power or an individual propensity癖好for corruption贪污.One needs to look beyond the stated goal to see what end is truly trying to beaccomplished.
theway people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and their society'svalues
衣着America -jeans or T-shirts- attitudesof neat and convenience and their extrovert racial character, Arabians- veils- religiousdoctrines
A person who tends to be obese might placea high value on indulgence and pleasure, and a low value on physical health. Ageneral preference for ready-made陈旧的, inexpensive clothingmight indicate a preference for practicality or for saving rather thanspending. And, a person who prefer to wear clothing that is traditional anddistinct to that society is one that values traditionover modernization
theway people look and dress is not a function of their attitudes and values but rather their climatic and work environment.
行动America& English& Japanese
The habits,rituals and lifestyles of a culture often do provide accurate signals about itsvalues. However, the way people behave can belie their attitudes and values
a society that places a high value on individualfreedoms and cultural diversity
It is necessary for us to get to knowthe history, the culture, the economy, and the politics of this society.
服饰和行为可具有欺骗性deceiving。A.有的人比较conservative B 有的人动机不纯，如：spy间谍，C国家机器press
we all engage infutile attempts to alter facts 任何改变都是徒劳的(I127)