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  恐龙吃石头

  背景材料

  材料一:

  90年前,美国的中亚科学考察队,曾在中国内蒙和蒙古人民共和国交界地带发掘出大量恐龙化石。

  有一天,科学家在发掘出的一具素食恐龙骨架的胃部,意外地发出了112颗小石子,这些小石子已被高度磨光了。

  很明显,这些小石子是这条恐龙活着的时候吞进胃里去的。它们长时间呆在胃里,并随着胃的蠕动与食物一起反复搅拌,渐渐地石头被磨光了。

  也许,恐龙吃石头既不是为了好玩,也不是因为石头里有什么营养。恐龙没有咀嚼食物的臼齿,食物未嚼碎就吞进肚里去了。它吃石头可以帮助消化胃中的食物。

  古生物学家称这些石头为胃石Gastrolith 胃石经常在埋藏恐龙骨骼化石的地层中发现。例如,在美国蒙大拿州富含恐龙化石的白垩纪早期的地层中,就发现了上千块这样的胃石。

  胃石是外来之物,但实际上却是恐龙的消化器官的一个重要的组成部分,是不可缺少的东西。

  其实,现在地球上的动物中,也有经常吃石头的。鸡就常常吞食一些砂石,鳄鱼吃石头更如家常便饭。它们吃石头都是为了帮助消化。

  胃石由于被磨得圆溜溜的,看来跟河中的卵石或沙漠中由风蚀作用形成的圆石块相似。如果胃石不同恐龙的骨骼一同发现的话,人们就会把它们当成一钱不值的废石头毛掉。想来一定有很多胃石就是这样被丢弃在野外,实在可惜。

  不久前,美国科学家发明了用激光技术鉴别胃石的方法,能将胃石和卵石区别开来。这样,胃石就不会随随便便被扔掉了。

  胃石是恐龙留下的档案材料之一。胃石不易磨碎或风化,保存为化石的机会比骨骼多。在地层中,只要发现了胃石,就是没有发现其他化石,古生物学家也能知道恐龙曾在这儿生活过。

  材料二:

  胃石是因进食某种物质后在胃内形成的石性团块状物。形状多为圆形或椭圆形,大小不一,小的如乒乓球,大者似婴孩头。按其组成成分不同可分为植物性、毛发性和混合性3种,临床上多见的是植物性的胃柿石。

  在柿子或黑枣中含有一种称为鞣质的东西,未成熟的柿子中,其含量很高。人们吃生柿时,舌有发涩的感觉,就是鞣质在作怪。此外,柿子中还含有树胶、果胶。人吃了末成熟的柿子后,鞣质在胃酸的作用下,能与蛋白质结合成不易溶于水的鞣酸蛋白,沉淀在胃内,而鞣酸蛋白、树胶、果胶能把柿核、蔬菜植物纤维粘合在一起,在胃内就可形成胃柿石。胃酸多的人吃柿子易长胃石。有些人吃一次生柿子就可形成胃石。

  古生物学家常在恐龙化石骨架的胃部或埋藏恐龙化石的岩层中发现被高度磨光的小石子,这些小石子被称为胃石,是恐龙生前吃进去的。恐龙囫囵吞下的食物不容易被消化,于是进化出了吞食小石头的习性。吃下去的石头长时期呆在胃里,随着胃的蠕动,和食物反复搅拌摩擦,食物被磨碎了,石头也渐渐被磨光了。这与今天的鸟类啄食小石子的作用非常相似。

  老新观点

  Long debate whether dinosaur was warm-or cold blooded? Scientists(warm-blooded) pointed out… moreover… these characteristic first recognized… cited as evidence… However, B’s contention began to be questioned…Recently, C investigated, however… C’s work raises a question central to the debate:…..

  This question remains unanswered……

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-9-Q33:

  The author of the passage would be most likely to agree that the “caution” (line 29) urged by de Ricqlès regarding claims about dinosaur physiology was

  A. unjustified by the evidence available to de Ricqlès作者同意caution是未被证明的.....不晓得在说什么 不是作者的态度 文章推不出来

  B. unnecessary, given the work done by Bakker and his followers

  C. indicative of the prevailing scientific opinion at the time

  D. warranted, given certain subsequent findings of other scientists

  E. influential in the recent work of Chinsamy无

  Answer:是问态度,作者对DE RICQLES的CAUTION的态度,阅读首要的是看清问题。

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-9-Q34:

  The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. discuss the influence on other scientists of Bakker’s argument concerning the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs

  B. provide evidence that supports the claim that dinosaurs were cold-blooded无

  C. challenge the contention that dinosaur bone tissue is innately fibro-lamellar文章不是要说这个,而是说warm-blooded和cold-blooded

  D. evaluate the claim that dinosaur bone tissue provides evidence for the warmbloodedness of dinosaurs

  E. resolve the disagreement between de Ricqlès and Bakker over the nature of dinosaur physiology

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-9-Q35:

  According to the passage, the discovery of growth rings in the bones of certain dinosaurs served to undermine which of the following claims?

  A. That modern reptiles are related to dinosaurs支持这个理论

  B. That bone growth in dinosaurs was periodic in nature无关

  C. That dinosaurs were warm-blooded however, Bakker’s contention began to be questioned, as number of scientists found growth rings in the bones of various dinosaurs that are much like those in modern reptiles.

  D. That dinosaurs had an intermediate type of physiology支持

  E. That fibro-lamellar bone is the product of a rapid growth rate无关

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  GWD-9-Q36:

  The author of the passage mentions bone growth patterns in juvenile crocodiles most likely in order to

  A. provide support for the argument that reptiles are not related to dinosaurs

  B. undermine the claim that most reptiles are slow-growing

  C. offer an explanation as to why juvenile crocodiles differ from most modern reptiles

  D. suggest the juvenile crocodiles have a type of physiology intermediate between that of mammals and that of reptiles偏

  E. suggest that the presence of fibro-lamellar bone does not resolve the debate over dinosaur physiology

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