The objective of this study was to evaluate how northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) locate truffles (Gautieria monticola), a subterranean and ephemeral but primary food source. Thus, we evaluated the importance of three factors to the foraging behavior of northern flying squirrels: (i) olfactory chemicals that emanate from truffles; (ii) the presence of coarse woody debris (decaying l**s), which are often associated with fungi; and (iii) we explored the potential role animal memory could play in truffle detection as well. In a foraging arena, squirrels successfully retrieved buried truffles that lacked aboveground cues in 19 of 30 trials and failed to search near treatments that lacked truffles alt**ether, confirming the importance of olfaction to squirrel foraging. However, squirrels also retrieved truffles that were associated most frequently with surface l**s (27 of 30). In addition, the initial detection rate of the truffle + l** treatment was significantly greater than the truffle-only treatment. Thus, although squirrels search for truffles primarily using olfaction, they may also benefit by searching near coarse woody debris on the forest floor as an aboveground cue to truffle locations. In addition, because 82% of Sierra Nevada truffle-fruiting locations that were marked in 1996 yielded truffles again the following 2 years, mycophagous animals like northern flying squirrels may benefit by memorizing fruiting locations and foraging at these same locations from year to year.