在备战GRE考试中,有些考生不知道该如何进行备考,不知道该从哪些方面入手,就会导致东看西看,到最后时间全部都浪费掉了,为此智课网小编为大家专门准备了一些关于GRE备考资料相关内容,方便帮助考生进行备考。

  GRE作文Argument常见逻辑漏洞分析

  基本概念常识出错

  虽然GRE考试本身出于公平的原则并没有对各类学科的高深专业知识提出要求,但考生还是需要具备一定的相关基础常识,比如GRE考试中经常涉及的社会、文化、经济、科技等常见主题的基本概念,都应该有所了解。因为GRE作文中,常常会出现一些涉及这些基本知识的逻辑漏洞。如果考生能够对这些知识有所了解,就能在文章题目中发现更多问题和张开论述的切入点。

  看法态度观点过于极端

  如果大家读过一些专业性较强的原版杂志报纸,比如《纽约时报》、《华尔街日报》或《经济学人》,就会发现其中很多文章都具备GRE作文考试最喜欢的特质:思考全面,观点平衡,有理有据。极端的观点和结论在GRE作文中鲜少有正确的时候,也往往会是最主要的攻击论点。因此,如果考生在题目的结论中看到了诸如“must”或者“undoubtedly”之类的用词,那么这就是极端结论的最好证明。

  表述用词含糊不清

  在GRE写作的题目中,诸如 “few”, “many”, “more”, “less”, and “some”之类的用词常可以看到,这些词虽然在一定程度上具备数字含义,本身却并无法表达出具体的数字,可以说是含义相对模糊不清的用词。如果题目中的论述,特别是涉及数据的部分是建立在这些模糊表达上而得出的结论,那么这个论述本身就存在问题,常常能成为可攻击的逻辑漏洞。

  推论武断忽视个别案列

  有些题目,常会根据一个较小的例子来得出一个很大的结论。这种以小见大的做法看似很好,但其实常常存在问题。比如一类事物中的A,B,C可能具备一些特性,能够概括出某个共同的结论,但这结论并不一定就能适用于该类事物中的所有不同个体,而这种忽略个例特殊性进而一概而论的情况,也可以成为考生论述中的突破口。

  不恰当比较引发错误结论

  有时候,作文题目中会首先列出事物A的前提和结论,并根据A和事物B的相近性,把前提和结论套用到事物B上,这样就往往会产生不恰当的比较,从而形成逻辑上的问题,举例来说:曾看到过一篇例文,讲述人和狗的肥胖问题,把人的肥胖原因和新城代谢等因此直接套用到狗的身上然后得出结论,这就是一种不恰当的比较。

  经典范文

  Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument.

  1.The following appeared in a memorandum written by the vice president of Nature's Way, a chain of stores selling health food and other health-related products.

  "Previous experience has shown that our stores are most profitable in areas where residents are highly concerned with leading healthy lives. We should therefore build our next new store in Painesville, which has many such residents. Painesville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise clothing are at all-time highs. The local health club, which nearly closed five years ago due to lack of business, has more members than ever, and the weight training and aerobics classes are always full. We can even anticipate a new generation of customers: Painesville's schoolchildren are required to participate in a 'fitness for life' program, which emphasizes the benefits of regular exercise at an early age."

  2.The following appeared in a letter sent by a committee of homeowners from the Deer haven Acres to all homeowners in Deer haven Acres.

  "Seven years ago, homeowners in nearby Brookville community adopted a set of restrictions on how the community's yards should be landscaped and what colors the exteriors of homes should be painted. Since then, average property values have tripled in Brookville. In order to raise property values in Deer haven Acres, we should adopt our own set of restrictions on landscaping and house painting."

  3.The following appeared in a newspaper article about law firms in the city of Megalopolis.

  "In Megalopolis, the number of law school graduates who went to work for large, corporate firms declined by 15% over the last three years, whereas an increasing number of graduates took jobs at small, general practice firms. Even though large firms usually offer much higher salaries, law school graduates are choosing to work for the smaller firms most likely because they experience greater job satisfaction at smaller firms. In a survey of first-year students at a leading law school, most agreed with the statement that earning a high salary was less important to them than job satisfaction. This finding suggests that the large, corporate firms of Megalopolis will need to offer graduates more benefits and incentives and reduce the number of hours they must work."

  4."Of the two leading real estate firms in our town---Adams Realty and Fitch Realty---Adams is clearly superior. Adams has 40 real estate agents. In contrast, Fitch has 25, many of whom work only part-time. Moreover, Adams' revenue last year was twice as high as that of Fitch, and included home sales that averaged $168,000, compared to Fitch's $144,000. Homes listed with Adams sell faster as well: ten years ago, I listed my home with Fitch and it took more than four months to sell; last year, when I sold another home, I listed it with Adams, and it took only one month. Thus, if you want to sell your home quickly and at a good price, you should use Adams."

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