1. My grandma has a strong belief in all things _____: she insists, for example, that the house in which she lived as a child was haunted.
2. Among the Meakambut people of Papua New Guinea, legends are associated with specific caves in the Sepik region, and these legends are _____: only the cave owner can share its secrets.
3. The professor’s habitual air of _____ was misleading front, concealing amazing reserves of patience and a deep commitment to his students’ learning.
The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today.
Based on evidence from tree rings, pollen samples and other records, scientists have for a long time assumed that interglacials—warm interludes between ice ages—were as mild and uniform as the Holocene, the present interglacial, has been for all of its 8,000 to 10,000 years. But new research in Greenland has put this assumption into question.
Researchers on two teams, the Greenland Ice-Core Project (GRIP) and the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), have analyzed two different cylinders of ice, each about two miles in depth, pulled up from the Greenland ice sheet. Such ice cores trap gases, bits of dust, and other chemicals that were present in the snow that fell over Greenland for thousands of years and then became compressed into ice. By studying these components, scientists have obtained a detailed archive of many aspects of climate, including air temperatures, snowfall, and concentrations of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere.
Exotic insect pests can produce both short-and long-term effects on forest ecosystems. Short-term effects include the disturbances directly associated with the action of the pest, which may cause the defoliation, loss of vigor, or death of trees. Long-term effects are primarily mediated by changes in tree species composition and the consequent alterations of forest structure, productivity, and nutrient uptake. Exotic pests are more efficient than most abiotic disturbances (e.g., fire or wind) at producing long-term changes in species composition. Pests often target specific tree species and, if they become established, they usually remain as permanent components of the ecosystem. Shifts in forest species composition ramify through the ecosystem in many ways because tree species have different, often unique properties.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1.The passage mentions which of the following as effects of exotic pests on forest ecosystems?
A. decreased vitality in trees
B. defoliation of trees
C. changes in forest structure
2. The author of the passage mentions the “unique properties” of tree species primarily in order to help explain
A. why pests tend to target specific tree species
B. why pests can have long-term effects on entire ecosystems
C. how pests contribute to shifts in forest species composition
D. how pests are able to become established in an ecosystem
E. how some tree species are able to withstand the effects of pests
In 1755 British writer Samuel Johnson published an acerbic letter to Lord Chesterfield rebuking his patron for neglect and declining further support. Johnson’s rejection of his patron’s belated assistance has often been identified as a key moment in the history of publishing, marking the end of the culture of patronage. However, patronage had been in decline for 50 years, yet would survive, in attenuated form, for another 50. Indeed, Johnson was in 1762 awarded a pension by the Crown—a subtle form of sponsorship, tantamount to state patronage. The importance of Johnson’s letter is not so much historical as emotional; it would become a touchstone for all who repudiated patrons and for all who embraced the laws of the marketplace.
1. The author of the passage mentions Johnson’s 1762 pension award in order to
A. reveal that Johnson remained consistent in his rebuke of Lord Chesterfield well after 1755
B. provide evidence for a general trend in the latter half of the eighteenth century of private patronage’s being replaced by state sponsorship
C. situate the debate over the end of patronage within the wider realm of eighteenth-century economic history
D. suggest that Johnson’s letter to Chesterfield was noticed by the Crown only years after it was published
E. emphasize that patronage still helped support Johnson’s writing after his letter to Chesterfield
2. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted phrase in the context of the passage as a whole? (patronage had been in decline for 50 years, yet would survive, in attenuated form, for another 50)
A. It points out the most obvious implications of Johnson’s letter to his patron.
B. It suggests a motivation for Johnson’s rejection of Chesterfield’ s patronage.
C. It provides information that qualifies the assertion that Johnson’s letter sharply defined of the end of a publishing era.
D. It provides a possible defense for Chesterfield’s alleged neglect of Johnson.
E. It refutes the notion the patrons are found primarily among the nobility.
Shoreland County recently purchased an area of wilderness land in the county to prevent it from being developed. In doing so, the county has forfeited all future property taxes on this land. Property taxes are assessed on market value, and if developed, the land would have contributed significantly to the county’s overall annual tax revenue. Because of the purchase, therefore, overall annual tax revenue will be lower than it would have been if development had occurred.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The money the county would have had to expend for services to residences or industry developed on the wilderness land would have exceeded the tax revenue from the developed land.
B. The market value of undeveloped properties in Shoreland County will not increase significantly in the foreseeable future.
C. The property taxes received by Shoreland County from the previous owners of the wilderness area were insignificant relative to the county’s overall annual tax revenue.
D. Land near the area bought by the county will not increase significantly in market value as a result of being near wilderness that is protected from development.
E. Shoreland County will not in the foreseeable future prevent the development of any other land in the county.
During the Pleistocene epoch, several species of elephants isolated on islands underwent rapid dwarfing. This phenomenon was not necessarily confined to the Pleistocene, but may have occurred much earlier in the Southeastern Asian islands, although evidence is fragmentary. Several explanations are possible for this dwarfing. For example, islands often have not been colonized by large predators or are too small to hold viable predator populations. Once free from predation pressure, large body size is of little advantage to herbivores. Additionally, island habitats have limited food resources, a smaller body size and a need for fewer resources would thus be favored. Interestingly, the island rule is reversed for small mammals such as rodents, for which gigantism is favored under insular conditions.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. question the plausibility of one explanation sometimes offered for the dwarfing of certain species living on islands
B. argue that dwarfing of certain species living on islands occurred prior to the Pleistocene
C. cite evidence suggesting that dwarfing may have adverse consequences for some species living on islands
D. present some possible explanations for the dwarfing of certain species living on islands
E. contrast the effects of insular conditions on species with large body size and species with small body
2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about body size in mammals is true?
A. A large body is unfavorable to mammalian species’ survival under most conditions.
B. A large body tends to benefit small mammals living on islands.
C. For most herbivorous mammals, a large body size is easier to sustain in the absence of large predators.
D. Under most conditions, a small body is less beneficial to herbivorous mammals than to nonherbivorous mammals.
E. Among nonherbivorous mammals, a small body is more beneficial on an island than on a mainland.
Although the passenger pigeons, now extinct, were abundant in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America, archaeological studies at twelfth-century Cahokian sites in the present day United States examined household food trash and found that traces of passenger pigeon were quite rare. Given that the sites were close to a huge passenger pigeon roost documented by John James Audubon in the nineteenth century and that Cahokians consumed almost every other animal protein source available, the archaeologists conducting the studies concluded the passenger pigeon population had once been very limited before increasing dramatically in post-Columbian America. Other archaeologists have criticized those conclusions on the grounds that passenger pigeon bones would not be likely to be preserved. But all the archaeological projects found plenty of bird bones and even tiny bones from fish.
1. The author of the passage mentions “tiny bones from fish” primarily in order to
A. explain why traces of passenger pigeon are rare at Cahokian sites
B. support a claim about the wide variety of animal proteins in the Cahokian diet
C. provide evidence that confirms a theory about the extinction of the passenger pigeon
D. cast doubt on the conclusion reached by the archaeologists who conducted the studies discussed in the passage
E. counter an objection to an interpretation of the data obtained from Cahokian sites
2. Which of the following, if true, would most call into question the reasoning of “the archaeologists conducting the studies”?
A. Audubon was unable to correctly identify twelfth-century Cahokian sites
B. Audubon made his observations before passenger pigeon populations began to decline.
C. Passenger pigeons would have been attracted to household food trash
D. Archaeologist have found passenger pigeon remains among food waste at eighteenth-century human settlements
E. Passenger pigeons tended not to roost at the same sites for very many generations
Some researchers claim that cetaceans—whales and dolphins—have culture, which the researchers define as the ability to learn from one another. Skeptics, however, demand clear evidence that cetaceans can acquire new behaviors through some form of social learning, preferably clear-cut instances of imitation or teaching. But such evidence is difficult to obtain. While few people doubt that captive cetaceans are adept at imitation or that they reproduce behaviors taught by researchers, biologists seeking insight into cetaceans’ behavior in their natural habitats must rely on deduction rather than experiments. If members of a particular group share behaviors that do not result from genetic inheritance or environmental variation, then they have almost certainly learned them by watching, following, or listening to other animals.
1. Which of the following best describe the function of the highlighted sentence?
A. It identifies a factor that complicates biologists’ ability to draw conclusions about the behavior of cetaceans in their natural environments.
B. It illustrates the kind of deduction mentioned in the preceding sentence.
C. It explains why skeptics have remained unpersuaded by evidence that has been put forward in support of the claim that cetaceans have culture.
D. It introduces a claim that would be dismissed by both supporters and opponents of the view that cetaceans have culture.
E. It notes a previously overlooked factor that might shed light on the question of whether cetaceans have culture.
2. The passage suggests which of the following about captive cetaceans?
A. Whether they are engaged in social learning is a subject of disagreement among biologists.
B. Their ability to imitate new behaviors is more extensive than that of noncaptive cetaceans.
C. They exhibit few behaviors that have not also been observed in cetaceans in their natural habitats.
D. They appear to adopt new behaviors more quickly than noncaptive cetaceans.
E. They exhibit tendencies that suggest a capacity for the kind of behavior that qualifies as cultural.
Most seismologists assume that following a major earthquake and its aftershocks, the fault (a break in Earth’s crust where pressure can trigger an earthquake) will remain quiet until stresses have time to rebuild, typically over hundreds or thousands of years. Recent evidence of subtle interactions between earthquakes may overturn this assumption, however. According to the stress-triggering hypothesis, faults are unexpectedly responsive to subtle stresses they acquire as neighboring faults shift. Rather than simply dissipating, stress relieved during an earthquake travels along the fault, concentrating in sites nearby; even the smallest additional stresses may then trigger another quake along the fault or on a nearby fault. Although scientists have long viewed such subtle interactions as nonexistent, the hypothesis has explained the location and frequency of earthquakes following several destructive quakes in California, Japan, and Turkey.
1. According to the passage, which of the following is an assumption that may be invalidated by recent seismological evidence?
A. Earthquakes are caused by stresses building up in faults within Earth’s crust.
B. Most major earthquakes can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
C. Faults are highly responsive to even minor stresses in neighboring faults.
D. Most major earthquakes are followed by predictable aftershocks.
E. A fault that has resulted in a major earthquake becomes quiet for a long period.
For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage suggests that most seismologists believe which of the following about fault stresses?
A. They are dissipated when they result in an earthquake.
B. They are transferred between neighboring faults.
C. They will not cause a major earthquake along the same fault in the space of a few years.