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  Writing about nineteenth-century women’s travel writing, Lila Harper notes that the four women she discussed used their own names, in contrast with the nineteenth-century female novelists who either published anonymously or used male pseudonyms. The novelists doubtless realized that they were breaking boundaries, whereas three of the four daring, solitary travelers espoused traditional values, eschewing radicalism and women’s movements. Whereas the female novelists criticized their society, the female travelers seemed content to leave society as it was while accomplishing their own liberation. In other words, they lived a contradiction. For the subjects of Harper’s study, solitude in both the private and public spheres prevailed—a solitude that conferred authority, hitherto a male prerogative, but that also precluded any collective action or female solidarity.

  1. Which of the following best characterizes the “contradiction” that the author refers to

  A. The subjects of Harper’s study enjoyed solitude, and yet as travelers they were often among people.

  B. Nineteenth-century travel writers used their own names, but nineteenth-century novelists used pseudonyms.

  C. Women’s movements in the nineteenth-century were not very radical in comparison with those of the twentieth-century.

  D. Nineteenth-century female novelists thought they were breaking boundaries, but it was the nineteenth-century women who traveled alone who were really doing so.

  E. While traveling alone in the nineteenth-century was considered a radical act for a woman, the nineteenth-century solitary female travelers generally held conventional views.

  Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.

  2. According to the passage, solitude had which of the following effects for the nineteenth century female travelers?

  A. It conferred an authority typically enjoyed only by men.

  B. It prevented formation of alliances with other women.

  C. It relieved peer pressure to conform to traditional values.

  Often, developing new methods for scientific research demands a willingness to reach across disciplinary boundaries, something that is notoriously difficult to carry out. Therefore, even though interdisciplinary is often proclaimed to be (), there are man structural reasons why it remains().

  A. A laudable goal B. an uncertain enterprise C. A formidable undertaking

  D. Feasible E. Admirable F. Exceptional