(2014/06/22 ) Just because Friedlander is interested in places that most people consider ugly does not mean that he is out to prove they are beautiful. Instead, his work suggests that the photographer cannot ignore so much of the built American landscape, but is obligated to document what we pass through day in and day out. Friedlander does not work as an elegist, but he is intensely aware of time's presence in his scenes.

  考察词汇:is interested in/ document/ aesthetic

  (2014/06/07)For one, Nox is unwieldy. It is, very deliberately, a literary object—the opposite of an e-reader designed to vanish in your palm as you read on a train.

  考察词汇:evanescent/ ephemeral

  (2014/06/07)View people as "social atoms" that obey rather simple rules (which are not unlike the laws of physics), we may discover certain patterns, or "lawlike regularities." Buchanan illustrates the approach with a very simple example: the way channels emerge when people move in crowds. In the midst of initially chaotic movements, one person begins to follow another in an effort to avoid collisions, and streams of movement emerge. As more people join such streams, there is greater pull on others to join in the Ulow, and the particular channels become self-perpetuating.

  考察词汇:law-like regularities/ chaotic / self-perpetuating

  (2014/05/10)Scientific discovery calls for a difficult balance: Intrepid advocacy of new ideas must often be tempered by the results of self-imposed trials.

  考察词汇:tempered/ moderate

  (2014/03/09)Traditional Vietnamese culture has long promoted the idea of gender equality. Founding myths celebrate the equal division of labor in childcare for mothers and fathers. As is often the case, however, theoretical commitments are incommensurate with actual processes. In reality, gender-based stratification persists.

  考察词汇:celebrate/ incommensurate with/ stratification

  (2014/04/26) In each case, the company felt misunderstood, as if it had failed a test it had not intended to take. The actors knew that their work made demands of an audience, that it was dense and unpredictable and that it wasn't always easy to digest. But none of the techniques they used would be truly alien to any one with a decent record or video collection. They would only seem strange to people who expected to see traditional "well-made" plays.

  考察词汇:made demands of/ alien to

  (2014/06/07)Artists whose roots were in painting and sculpture and were delighted to find a photographic mode that encouraged them to forget the hallowed and irrelevant purism of the fine gelatin-silver print in favor of something they could handle with spontaneity, even derision.


  (2014/04/26)In contrast to virtually all serious literary and political journals, which drain money from their owners, the Review has been profitable for decades. But the formula is not without its imperfections, which have grown more pronounced in recent years. The publication has always been erudite and authoritative--and because of its analytical rigor and seriousness, frequently essential--but it hasn't always been lively, pungent and readable. A musty odor, accompanied by a certain aversion to risk-taking, has pervaded its pages for a long time.

  考察词汇:lucrative/ authoritative/ staleness

  (2014/08/17)Among the ancients, history was a literary art, as John Burrow illustrates in his fascinating compendium “A History of Histories: Epics, Chronicles, Romances and Inquiries from Herodotus and Thucydides to the Twentieth Century”. Invention was a hallmark of ancient history, which was filled with long, often purely fictitious speeches of great men. It was animated by rhetoric, not by evidence. Even well into the eighteenth century, not a few historians continued to understand themselves as artists, with license to invent.

  考察词汇:a hallmark of

  (2014/07/13)Noise suppression can also play an important role in making cellphone networks more efficient, he said. When phones transmit extraneous noise beyond the speakers’ voices, precious network bandwidth is wasted, he said.


  (2014/07/05) However, the beauty of the scientific approach is that even when individuals do succumb to bias or partiality, others can correct them using a framework of evidence that everyone broadly agrees on.

  考察词汇:succumb to

  (2014/07/05) Though we live in an era of stunning scientific understanding, all too often the average educated person will have none of it. People who would sneer at the vulgarian who has never read Virginia Woolf will insouciantly boast of their ignorance of basic physics.

  考题考察词汇: boast of

  (2014/07/05) A failure to nurture this knowledge shows a philistine indifference to the magnificent achievements humanity is capable of, like allowing a great work of art to molder in a warehouse.

  考题考查词汇: failure/ indifference

  (2014/07/05) Glass, by definition, is amorphous; its atoms lack order and are arranged every which way. But when scientists squeezed tiny samples of a metallic glass under high pressure, they got a surprise: The atoms lined up in a regular pattern to form a single crystal.

  考题考查词汇: amorphous

  (2014/08/17) Among the ancients, history was a literary art, as John Burrow illustrates in his fascinating compendium “A History of Histories: Epics, Chronicles, Romances and Inquiries from Herodotus and Thucydides to the Twentieth Century”. Invention was a hallmark of ancient history, which was filled with long, often purely fictitious speeches of great men. It was animated by rhetoric, not by evidence. Even well into the eighteenth century, not a few historians continued to understand themselves as artists, with license to invent.

  考题考查词汇: hallmark/ evidence

  (2014/08/17) Certainly, the slow pace of job-creation today is without precedent, but so were the conditions that conspired to slow a booming economy at the beginning of the decade. A stock market bubble burst, and rampant business investment slumped. Then, when the economy was down, terrorist attacks were followed by a spate of scandals that undermined public trust in the way companies were run. These acted as powerful headwinds and, in the face of them, the last recession was remarkably mild.

  考题考查词汇: atypical/ weaken/ counterforce

  (2014/08/17) Despite their cultural and social significance, rapid growth, and widespread appeal in China, video games—unlike traditional media—have received scant attention from the international communication research community.

  考题考查词汇: scant & limited

  (2014/08/17) It remains to be shown how large the differences are between humans and other animals. Although Wynne claims to recognize that not enough data are available to make definitive statements, he offers them nonetheless, arriving at some sweeping generalizations. He argues for the objective study of behavior, but—ironically—much of his book serves to illustrate that science isn't value–free and that every scientist has an agenda.

  考题考查词汇: insufficient & meager

  (2014/08/24) Even before he went to art school, Heatherwick found the standard design categories confining; he didn’t understand why designing buildings and designing tables should require different sensibilities.

  考题考查词汇: confining & limiting

  (2014/08/24) The reason, he and his colleague, Andrei Shleifer, argue, is that consumers care about more than accuracy. "We assume that readers prefer to hear or read news that are more consistent with their beliefs," they write. Bias is not a bug but a feature. In a competitive news market, they argue, producers can use bias to differentiate their products and stave off price competition. Bias increases consumer loyalty.

  考题考查词汇: accuracy/ bias

  (2014/08/24) But despite its abundance and importance, the biological origin of maize has been a long-running mystery. The bright yellow, mouth-watering treat we know so well does not grow in the wild anywhere on the planet, so its ancestry was not at all obvious.

  考题考查词汇: ancestry / obvious

  (2014/08/24) In my opinion, and that of many others, Frank Kermode is the finest English critic of his generation. There is a semantic flaw in that statement, since Kermode was born and brought up on the Isle of Man, a small, mountainous island moored in the choppy Irish Sea halfway between Liverpool and Belfast; and Man is not a part of England, or indeed of the United Kingdom, but a British dependency, with its own parliament, laws, and language (now almost extinct). However, to call Kermode the finest Manx critic of his generation would be a paltry compliment, since not many of its population of approximately 70,000 are professionally engaged in literary criticism; and in any case he has made his distinguished career as a teacher and scholar in the English departments of English universities.

  考题考查词汇: paltry & meager

  (2014/08/31) Nevertheless, the claim—advocated by many experts—that a child acts more like a grammatical genius than an empty slate, a “tabula rasa”, ready to be written on and forged by experience, seems jarring to those who think of language as the zenith of the human intellect and who think of instincts as brute impulses that compel furry or feathered zombies to build a dam or up and fly south.

  考题考查词汇: jarring

  (2014/08/31) Since the modern inception of international environmental law (IEL) in the late 1960s, proponents of international regulation of environmental issues have struggled against scientific uncertainty and economic hostility. From a political standpoint, these two obstacles often have been closely related, as economic hostility has heavily relied upon the considerable scientific uncertainty underlying most environmental challenges at different stages of their understanding and recognition to downplay the legitimacy of environmental regulation.

  考题考查词汇: exploit/ downplay the legitimacy

  (2014/06/22) With the emergence of scientific history-writing in the late nineteenth century Henry Cabot Lodge, Woodrow Wilson, Paul Leicester Ford, and others sought to dispel the myths and uncover the human being behind them, but their laudatory biographies still left the father of the country marbled and remote. By the 1920s Washington had become such a distant and deified figure that inevitably someone had to go to the other extreme and try to destroy the legend completely. Rupert Hughes and William Woodward (the inventor of the word “debunk”) stripped Washington of any idealism whatsoever, ridiculed the quality of his mind, and compared him to a petty banker.

  考题考查词汇: laudatory/ deified / debunk

  (2014/08/31) A certain contradictoriness is built into the work, which is both epic and chamber opera, brutal and plaintive in equal measure, and which embodies in the underlying folkloric strains of much of its music a kind of occulted joyousness entirely at odds with the debacle it chronicles.

  考题考查词汇: contradictoriness/ joyous

  (2014/08/31) Although existing information is spotty and interpretations uncertain, the evidence points to a decline in human health and nutrition from Paleolithic to Mesolithic periods in the Old Worlds. The interpretation of some of this evidence is controversial, but there is no countering evidence to suggest progress in nutrition or an improvement in health.

  考题考查词汇: uncertain/ decline in/ counter

  (2014/09/04) This story points to one of the real weaknesses in Rousseau’s thought and work. In a century where cold rationalism generally came leavened with irony and wit, he was almost entirely humorless, and tremendously moralistic.