2-6. Within the culture as a whole,the natural sciences have been so successful that the word “scientific” isoften used in (i)_____ manner: it is often assumed that to call something“scientific” is to imply that its reliability has been (ii)_____ by methods whoseresults cannot reasonably be (iii)_____.
A. an ironicD. malignedG. exaggerated
B. a literalE. challengedH. anticipated
C. an honorificF. establishedI. disputed
3-4. Many of the towns that have votedto keep incinerators in the county’s solid waste plan have done so not becausethey necessarily (i)_____ incinerators, but because they are (ii)_____ tonarrow their waste-disposal options.
A. questionD. willing
B. favorE. eager
C. opposeF. loath
6-6. Many fairy tales are complexnarratives of wish fulfillment. They teach the reader that a struggle againstsevere difficulties in life is (i)_____, that it is an intrinsic part of humanexistence, and that if one does not (ii)_____, but steadfastly meets unexpectedand often unjust hardships, one masters all obstacles and at the end(iii)_____.
A. atypicalD. preserveG. elicits adversities
B. unavoidableE. improviseH. emerges victorious
C. insurmountableF. shy awayI. evades achievements
12-3. Tagore had a sharply definedsense of the (i)_____ of scientific inquiry. The fact that science dealt instatistics and numbers, that its logic was probabilistic, meant that the domainof moral questions (ii)_____ it: moral questions, for Tagore, required certainties,not probabilities.
A. irrationalityD. guarded over
B. limitsE. lay outside
C. futilityF. was subject to
21-6. Early practitioners of thenatural sciences developed methods to remove distortions caused by either theresearch environment or the researcher. Such methods, especially with respectto the researcher, were considered to (i)_____ those (ii)_____ subjectivitywhose unbridled expression was thought to (iii)_____ research.
A. restrainD. incursions ofG. corrupt
B. revealE. restrictions onH. justify
C. disguiseF. acknowledgements ofI. expedite
43-6. While some commentators suggestthat abstraction and complexity in scientific research are signs that a givendirection is misguided, Lisa Randall, a professor of physics at Harvard,counters that these qualities instead reflect the success of human ingenuity in(i)_____ the increasingly (ii)_____ challenges that nature presents. They can,however, make it more (iii)_____ to communicate scientific developments, evento colleague.
A. creatingD. difficultG. challenging
B. meetingE. conspicuousH. unproductive
C. eschewingF. pragmaticI. advantageous
49-7. While normal floods resultingfrom usual monsoon rainfall are _____ the growth of crops, recently there hasbeen an increase in the frequency of high-intensity floods that do not havesuch welcome effects.
A. conducive to
B. hindered by
C. devastating for
D. deleterious for
E. essential for
F. indispensable to
51-8. Some have argued that namingscientific discoveries after the people who make them can _____ scientificprogress, because the nomenclature lacks useful clarity, having no relationshipto the underlying principles that govern nature.
62-9. The _____ of biographies ofantebellum capitalists is particularly striking in contrast with the abundanceof life stories of industrialists in later eras.
64-3. In the years prior to the CivilWar, Philadelphia’s African American press encourage readers to be vaccinatedagainst smallpox. This journalistic campaign was initially (i)_____, appealingto readers sense of communal duty, and became even more (ii)_____ once the warstarted, as smallpox outbreaks began to occur on Philadelphia’s outskirts.
A. hortatoryD. controversial
B. ineffectiveE. urgent
C. widespreadF. inopportune
69-3. Throughout much of the twentiethcentury, common scientific sense seemed to dictate that animals could not makea choice based on rational or aesthetic criteria. Such choices were (i)_____the mental capacity of humans. Scientists who (ii)_____ this animal-humancognitive division were often accused of anthropomorphism.
A. reserved forD. accepted
B. inconsistent withE. transgressed
C. similar toF. exacerbated