1. The skin of the poison dart frog contains deadly poisons called batrachotoxins. But the (i)_____ of the toxins has remained an enigma, as the frog does not (ii)_____ them. Now an analysis suggests that the melyrid beetle is the source. Collected beetle specimens all contained batrachotoxins, suggesting that these beetles are (iii)_____ by the frogs.

  A. effectD. pressureG. eaten

  B. originE. produceH. neutralized

  C. purposeF. suffer fromI. poisoned

  2. Historian Barbara Alpern Engel’s task in writing a book about women in Russia must have been a (i)_____ one, because the (ii)_____ the Russian empire’s peoples meant that Russian women could never be treated as a homogeneous group.

  A. motivatingD. unity among

  B. boringE. disinterest in

  C. dauntingF. diversity of

  3. Flawed as it may be because it is conducted by subjective scientists, science itself has methods that help us _____ our biases and talk about objective reality with some validity.

  A. bypass

  B. reduce

  C. exacerbate

  D. magnify

  E. acknowledge

  F. circumvent

  4. A new television documentary focuses on of the prime minister’s defining contradiction, portraying her as a woman who cultivated an image of _____, but who liked to live grandly.

  A. irascibility

  B. abstemiousness

  C. contentiousness

  D. insouciance

  E. surreptitiousness

  5. Inuit print making is less (i)_____ than carving in that it does not have substantial historical precedents, although there are (ii)_____ incised carvings on bone or antler, facial tattoo marks or inlay skin work on clothing, mitts and footwear. Carving materials such as stone, bone, antler, wood, and ivory were (iii)_____, but paper and drawing tools were unknown until introduced by early explorers and missionaries.

  A. traditionalD. affinities withG. available locally

  B. prestigiousE. objections toH. rarely used

  C. anomalousF. regulations aboutI. virtually interchangeable

  6. For many years, Americans have had a love affair with ferryboats. Ferries are said to relieve our frayed nerves after we’ve stewed in bumper-to-bumper traffic, and conventional wisdom also says ferries (i)_____ congestion and air pollution by getting us out of cars. Unfortunately, this (ii)_____ notion recently has (iii)_____ several West Coast mayors, who have in consequence eagerly pursued the implementation of ferry service in their cities.

  A. contribute toD. provocativeG. captivated

  B. reduceE. misguidedH. confused

  C. cover upF. cynicalI. outraged

  7. Investors are grateful that the attorney general has stepped in to pursue inquiries into misfeasance in the financial markets, given that the regulators officially charged with policing the industry have been _____.

  A. diffident

  B. meticulous

  C. straightforward

  D. implacable

  E. Tenacious

  8. Firebaugh and Beck contend that economic development improves the overall well-being of people within developing countries. However, other scholars emphasize the (i)_____ of this view, empirically demonstrating that while economic development does in fact contribute to the well-being of the population of developing countries, the magnitude of development’s positive effects on well-being has (ii)_____. In other words, these scholars suggest that (iii)_____ economic development and human well-being is taking place in developing countries.

  A. falsityD. been greatly underestimatedG. a decoupling of

  B. arbitrarinessE. not yet been measuredH. an inversion of

  C. limitationF. decreased over timeI. a decline in

  9. The research on otters’ environmental requirements is surprisingly (i)_____. One reason for this has to do with the estimation of how much they use different areas. Doing so may be (ii)_____ in some kinds of terrain, such as Shetland where the Eurasian otters are active in daytime and have clear individual markings. There it is possible to identify the individuals over stretches of coast of a few kilometers and to see what kinds of coast they use. However, the field conditions are (iii)_____.

  A. straightforwardD. quite problematicG. routine

  B. controversialE. relatively simpleH. deceptive

  C. difficultF. largely unnecessaryI. exceptional

  10. Some climatologists dismiss as (i)_____ the debate among geophysicists over the role of carbon dioxide in global climate change across many millions of years. These climatologists say the evidence of a tie between carbon dioxide and planetary warming over the last few centuries is so (ii)_____ that any longer-term evidence against such a link must somehow be (iii)______.

  A. unavoidableD. unlikelyG. tainted

  B. irrelevantE. controversialH. accommodated

  C. undecidableF. compellingI. reinforced

  11. Sokari Douglas Camp was _____ in the early 1990s by many of London’s commercially driven art dealers and galleries, some of whom apparently found her themes difficult to market.

  A. criticized

  B. lionized

  C. misrepresented

  D. neglected

  E. forsaken

  F. eulogized

  12. The assumption that children learn about science primarily in the classroom is so _____ that few scientists, educators or policymakers question it, despite an ever-growing body of evidence demonstrating that most science is learnt outside of school.

  A. tenuous

  B. subtle

  C. irrefutable

  D. pervasive

  E. misconstrued


  Passage 8

  An alarming number of Mediterranean monk seals, an endangered species, have recently died. Postmortem analysis showed the presence of an as yet unidentified virus, as well as evidence of a know bacterial toxin. Seawater samples from the area where the seals died did contain unusually high concentrations of the toxic bacterium. Therefore, although both viruses and bacterial toxins can kill seals, it is more likely that these deaths were the result of the bacterial toxin.

  Which of the following, if true, provides additional evidence to support the conclusion?

  A. Viruses are much more difficult to identify in postmortem analysis than bacteria are.

  B. Mediterranean monk seals are the only species of seal in the area where the bacterium was found.

  C. The bacterium is almost always present in the water in at least small concentrations.

  D. Nearly all the recent deaths were among adult seals, but young seals are far more susceptible to viruses than are adult seals.

  E. Several years ago, a large number of monk seals died in the same area as a result of exposure to a different bacterial toxin.

  Passage 11

  Before feminist literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a prototype of weepy sentimentalism—a pious, insipid icon of conventional American culture. Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism. Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile Fern’s sardonic social critiques with her effusive celebrations of many conventional values.Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric strategically to disguise her subversive goals beneath apparent conventionality. However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying readers emotionally, moving them to embrace social change.


  Passage 19

  The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today.


  Passage 48

  When studying shrimp feeding from hydro-thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean, biologists were surprised that the shrimps’ reproductive cycles followed seasonal patterns. Far beyond the reach of sunlight, and with food abundant around the vents all year round, why should such animals reproduce seasonally? The answer might involve their offspring, which in their larval form drift in the currents to colonize new vents. The larvae must feed during their trip, and their springtime release coincides with a peak in algae raining down from surface waters. So far, researchers have found no evidence of seasonal breeding among vent-dwelling species that provide their offspring with yolk to sustain them or among vent-dwelling species found in areas of the ocean with not seasonal algae blooms.


  Passage 53

  The manuscripts of the eight extant Latin tragedies identify the plays as the Marci Lucii Annei Senecae Tragoediae. Since nobody of that name is known, modern scholars believe the dramasto be the work of Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger, the well-known philosopher, orator and politician. Clearly the tragedies were written during Seneca’s lifetime: internal references to earlier poets, most notably Ovid, indicate that the dramas cannot have been composed prior to the second decade C.E., and the plays must have been written by 96C.E., when Quintilian quotes Medea, one of the tragedies.


  Passage 59

  Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to divert rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.


  Passage 60

  Ralph Ellison was passionately interested in visual arts. He immersed himself in Harlem’s art scene in the 1930s, even apprenticing with sculptor Richmond Barthe for a time. Yet he was wary of projects aiming to provide a visual rendering of his novel Invisible Man. He reluctantly allowed Franklin Library to publish two illustrated versions of the novel but found the results disappointing and repeatedly rejected proposed film versions of the book. Despite his involvement in visual arts, Ellison insisted that only language could capture the complexity of American identity. This complexity consisted of the tension arising from the collision of the United States’ written ideals, as outlined in the founding documents, and the historical and contemporary experience molding the national consciousness.


  Passage 106

  Although vastly popular during its time, much nineteenth-century women’s fiction in the United States went unread by the twentieth-century educated elite, who were taught to ignore it as didactic. However, American literature has a tradition of didacticism going back to its Puritan roots, shifting over time from sermons and poetic transcripts into novels, which proved to be perfect vehicles for conveying social values. In the nineteenth century, critics reviled Poe for neglecting to conclude his stories with pithy moral tags, while Longfellow was canonized for his didactic verse. Although rhetorical changes favoring the anti-didactic can be detected as nineteenth-century American transformed itself into a secular society, it was twentieth-century criticism, which placed aesthetic value above everything else, that had no place in its doctrine for the didacticism of others.


  Passage 130

  Some archaeologists speculate that the Americas might have been initially colonized between 40,000 and 25,000 years ago. However, to support this theory it is necessary to explain the absence of generally accepted habitation sites for that time interval in what is now the United States. Australia, which has a smaller land area than the United States, has many such sites, supporting the generally accepted claim that the continent was colonized by humans at least 40,000 years ago. Australia is less densely populated (resulting in lower chances of discovering sites) and with its overall greater aridity would have presented conditions less favorable for hunter-gatherer occupation.



  Issue 题号 30,54,62,82

  Argument 题号 78,83,115