Because the subject matter was so personal, the work of several prominent mid-twentieth century poets has been termed “confessional” poetry. But confession is a bad metaphor for what those poets did. The motive for confession is penitential or therapeutic—by speaking openly about personal guilt and suffering, the poet hopes to make them easier to bear. But these poets always approached their writing as artists, and their motive was aesthetic. Writing from experiences like madness, despair, and lust, their aim was to make effective art, not to cure themselves. To treat their poems mainly as documents of personal experience is not just to diminish the poets’ achievement, but to ignore their unanimous disdain for the idea of confessional poetry.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
1. The author of the passage suggests that applying the term “confessional” to the work of the poets discussed
A. is mistaken in what it seems to imply about the poets’ motivation
B. might seem superficially appropriate given the subject matter of the poems
C. is an error arising from the absence of any other convenient term.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. The passage implies that the poets discussed did NOT
A. think that a poet’s motivation for writing was relevant in evaluating that poet’s work
B. experience any relief of their personal suffering as a result of writing
C. apply to their own work the label by which it has subsequently been know
Biologists studying wild monkeys sometimes need the genetic material DNA from a particular monkey to determine the animal's parentage. Until recently, DNA could be extracted only from blood. Collecting a blood sample required tranquilizing the donor animal. Now DNA can be extracted from hair. Monkeys shed large quantities of hair in places where they sleep. Therefore, researchers will now be able to determine the parentage of individual monkeys from DNA without tranquilizing the monkeys.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The places in which monkeys sleep are easily accessible to researchers.
B. Information about a particular monkey’s parentage is the only kind of information that can be determined from DNA that has been extracted from that monkey’s hair.
C. For at least some samples of hair collected from monkey habitat it will be possible to associate hairs with the individual monkeys from which they came.
D. Examining DNA is the only way to determine the parentage of wild monkeys.
E. It will be necessary to obtain any hair samples used in determining a monkey’s parentage from a place where the monkey has slept.
As it was published in 1935, Mules and Men, Zora Neale Hurston's landmark collection of folktales, may not have been the book that its author first had in mind. In this anthropological study, Hurston describes in detail the people who tell the stories, often even inserting herself into the storytelling scene. Evidently, however, Hurston had prepared another version, a manuscript that was recently discovered and published after having been forgotten since 1929. This version differs from Mules and Men in that it simply records stories, with no descriptive or interpretive information.
While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. Contemporary novelist and critic John Edgar Wideman has described Black literature as the history of a writing that sought to escape its frame, in other words, as the effort of Black writers to present the stories of Black people without having to have a mediating voice to explain the stories to a non-Black audience. In this, Hurston may have been ahead of her time.
1. Select the sentence that suggests a possible reason why Hurston wrote the version of Mules and Men that was published in 1935.
2. The passage suggests that Hurston may have done which of the following in preparing her original version?
A. Discussed her mode of presentation with her publisher before writing the first draft, in order to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding.
B. Shortened her presentation of the stories to the bare minimum in order to be able to present more folklore material.
C. Put it aside for several decades in order to maximize its potential audience when it was published.
D. Reluctantly agreed to reshape it in order to take out various elements with which her publisher had been dissatisfied.
E. Chose not to include editorial commentary, in order to present the stories on their own terms.
1. While we cannot know for certain why Hurston’s original manuscript went unpublished during her lifetime, it may have been because publishers wanted something more than a transcription of tales. 2.E
Although many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some plant communities are more susceptible than others to invasion by nonnative species, results from field studies have been inconsistent and no general theory of invasibility has yet emerged. However, a theory based on fluctuating resource availability could integrate most existing hypotheses and successfully resolve many of the apparently conflicting and ambiguous results of previous studies. The suggested theory is that a plant community becomes more susceptible to invasion whenever there is an increase in the amount of unused resources.
The diversity in the range of resource-release mechanisms could partly explain the absence of consistent ecological correlates of invasibility. In particular, the theory predicts that there will be no necessary relationship between the species diversity of a plant community and its susceptibility to invasion, since near-complete exploitation can each occur in both species-rich and species-poor communities.
Though Lonsdale found a positive association between species richness and invasion, this may arise from the tendency of diverse plant communities to be nutrient poor and therefore more responsive to the effects of human-caused influxes of nutrients.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. assessing the empirical success of a theory
B. explaining why no consistent theoretical account of a phenomenon has been possible
C. advocating a potential solution to a theoretical impasse
D. deducing testable predictions from a proposed theory
E. describing the difficulties involved in explaining certain empirical results
2. It can be inferred that the author would most likely agree with which of the following assessments of the results from field studies
A. Many of the results contradicted predictions of susceptibility to invasion that are based on the availability of resources unused by the community.
B. If fluctuating resource availability were taken into account, many of the apparent in consistencies among the results could be explained.
C. The apparent inconsistencies and ambiguities in the results are caused by trying to make them fit an inadequate general theory of invasibility.
D. No general theory of invasibility has emerged because none of the studies has been able to assess the degree of an invasion accurately.
E. The results tend to show a degree of susceptibility to invasion that is lower than would be expected given the prevalence in the wild of nonnative species.
3. According to the author, the theory based on fluctuating resource availability might resolve “apparently conflicting and ambiguous results” because
A. It explains how a particular circumstance can produce disparate effects.
B. It does not assume that all of the results are instances of the phenomenon that the theory is intended to explain.
C. It predicts that seemingly minor variations in research methodology can have a dramatic effect on results.
D. Its account is based on a statistical tendency rather than on the supposition that the results arise from a causal connection.
E. It indicates why a similar outcome may be preceded by very different circumstances on different occasions.
1.C 2.B 3.E