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  Exercise 1

  Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following reading passage. Immediately relevant to game theory are the sex ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs Line develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males. 5 A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it unfertilized. By Fisher‘s genetic argument that the sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the 10 number of gene copies transmitted, it should pay a female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters. Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly emerged adult wasps mate immediately and disperse, 15 offered a remarkably cogent analysis. Since only one female usually lays eggs in a given larva, it would pay her to produce one male only, because this one male could fertilize all his sisters on emergence. Like Fisher, Hamilton looked for an evolutionarily stable strategy, 20 but he went a step further in recognizing that he was looking for a strategy.

  1. The author suggests that the work of Fisher and Hamilton was similar in that both scientists

  (A) conducted their research at approximately

  the same time

  (B) sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some

  of the animals they studied

  (C) sought an explanation of why certain sex

  ratios exist and remain stable

  (D) studied game theory, thereby providing important

  groundwork for the later development of strategy theory

  (E) studied reproduction in the same animal species

  For the following question, consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply

  2. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about wasps?

  A How many eggs does the female wasp

  usually lay in a single host larva?

  B Can some species of wasp determine sex

  ratios among their offspring?

  C What is the approximate sex ratio

  among the offspring of parasitic wasps?

  3. Which of the following is NOT true of the species of parasitic wasps discussed in the passage?

  (A) Adult female wasps are capable of storing sperm.

  (B) Female wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of

  other insects.

  (C) The adult female wasp can be fertilized by a male that

  was hatched in the same larva as herself.

  (D) So few male wasps are produced that extinction is

  almost certain.

  (E) Male wasps do not emerge from their hosts until they

  reach sexual maturity.

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