David Belasco’s 1912 Broadway production of The Governors Lady created a sensation with a scene set in a Childs cafeteria, a chain restaurant that was an innovator in food standardization and emblematic of modern everyday life. While Belasco’s meticulously detailed reproduction of an immediately recognizable setting impressed the public, it was derided by progressive theater critics who championed the New Stagecraft theories of European artists like Max Reinhardt. The New Stagecraft rejected theatrical literalism; it drew inspiration from the subjectivity and minimalism of modern painters, advocating simplified sets designed to express a dramatic texts central ideas. Such critics considered Belasco a craftsman who merely captured surface realities: a true artist eliminated the inessential to create more meaningful, expressive stage images.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about Belasco’s production of The Governors Lady?
A. It was dismissed by certain theater critics who misunderstood Belasco’s conception of modernity.
B. It was intended to marshal elements of the New Stagecraft to serve Belasco’s predilection for realistic staging.
C. It demonstrated that theatrical literalism could be used effectively to express a dramatic texts central ideas.
D. It elicited responses that reflected a discrepancy between popular tastes in entertainment and the tastes of progressive theater critics.
E. It relied on the appeal of an impressively realistic stage set to compensate for weaknesses in other aspects of the production.
2. It can be inferred that the theater critics would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the theatrical productions?
A. Theatrical productions that seek to eliminate the inessential also often eliminate theatrical elements that enhance the expressiveness of a play.
B. Theatrical productions that faithfully recreate the visual details of everyday life are unlikely to do justice to a good play’s central ideas.
C. Theatrical productions that employ the minimalism characteristic of modern paintings may have greater appeal to modern audiences than productions that rely on theatrical literalism.
D. Theatrical productions that aim to represent truths about modern life should not attempt to employ elements of the New Stagecraft.
E. Theatrical productions that attempt to produce authentic-looking scenes of everyday reality are likely to fail in that goal because of the theaters inherent limitations.
Modern feminism has brought the reputation of the English writer Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) to something approaching the luster it deserves. While she enjoyed a certain celebrity among political radicals in the years just after her death, beginning in the nineteenth century her fame as a writer was hidden by disproportionate attention to her unconventional and, at the time, shocking personal life. When, therefore, Virginia Woolf wrote in 1925 of Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman that they felt like books so true that they seem now to contain nothing new in them, it was more a wishful than an accurate statement of the case. Wollstonecraft’s advances in moral thinking still have the power to shock position-takers of every party. The importance of gender even today is said to cut across other criteria for judging the conduct of men and women in society; Wollstonecraft, by contrast, believed that the shared morality of men and women should cut across all specifications of gender.
Wollstonecraft considered gender-based morality a relic of a barbarous age: part of that specialization of virtues by which every sexual feeling was expected to express itself as libertinism (in men) or false modesty (in women). In her view, there ought to be one criterion of morals for men and women alike, with both sexes cultivating the same virtues. Wollstonecraft rebelled against the copious sentimental literature of her own time, which she felt patronized women by insisting that it was to their advantage to affect chastity and modesty and that such virtues were their own reward.
In The Rights of Men, Wollstonecraft explores this double Bulosan standard from an unexpected angle. It was the first major response to Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), appearing less than a month after theimpassioned defense of the deposed French monarchy. A defender of Burke called Wollstonecraft’s book an incoherent mass of treacherous candour, interested generosity, and, if not false, at least unnecessary accusation. But Wollstonecraft nonetheless managed to show how the traditionally feminine virtues of sentimental morality had been transferred by Burke to the aristocracy. Burke’s rhapsody on the queen of France (glittering like the morning star, full of life, and splendor, and joy) was, for Wollstonecraft, an example of the argument that beauty and instinct must often prevail over reason, the argument on which Burke took his stand as a defender of the old order. Like women, Burke thought, and from a similar greatness and delicacy in their nature, the aristocracy were understood at once to require deference and to solicit compassion. To Wollstonecraft, Burke’s argument linked sympathy and power in a dangerous alliance; she insisted that aristocrats do not deserve to be treated in the way that women have traditionally been treated any more than women themselves do.
1. By quoting Burke’s defender in the highlighted phrase, the author of the passage most clearly succeeds in
A. providing a context for the political turbulence that unseated the French monarchy
B. emphasizing the way in which Wollstonecraft’s philosophy divided men and women
C. explaining why Wollstonecraft’s work has won more acceptance in the twentieth century than in the nineteenth
D. illustrating the nature of the appeal of Burkes argument
E. demonstrating the degree of hostility aroused by Wollstonecraft’s work
2. The author of the passage quotes Burke’s description of the queen of France most probably in order to
A. provide a specific illustration of a position with which Wollstonecraft took issue
B. provide a specific example of Burke’s already archaic prose style
C. balance the quotation from Burkes anonymous defender
D. provide evidence of why Burkes position was more widely accepted than Wollstonecraft’s
E. provide an example of what Wollstonecraft perceived as Burke’s lack of political astuteness
3. The passage suggests that which of the following is true concerning Virginia Woolf’s appraisal of A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman?
A. Woolf was defending Wollstonecraft’s theories against attacks by nineteenth—century critics who concentrated only on Wollstonecraft’s notoriety.
B. Woolf favored the advances proposed by Wollstonecraft and mistakenly assumed that they had become self-evident in the twentieth century.
C. Woolf miscalculated the practical effects that the advances proposed by Wollstonecraft would have on society.
D. Woolf decried the loss in the twentieth-century of social progress made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
E. Woolf was reacting against what she considered a lack of originality on Wollstonecraft’s part while calling for more sweeping changes than Wollstonecraft had proposed.
4. The author of the passage suggests that modern feminism has treated the writings of Mary Wollstonecraft in which of the following ways?
A. Modern feminism has emphasized the progressive aspects of Wollstonecraft’s writings, while separating her work from her personal reputation.
B. Modern feminism has emphasized Wollstonecraft’s importance as a theorist, while deemphasizing her effect on the daily life of her times.
C. Modern feminism has worked toward a synthesis of Wollstonecraft’s philosophical advances with those of her contemporaries.
D. Modern feminism has embraced Wollstonecraft’s relative importance as a theorist, while rejecting certain elements of her theories of gender-based morality.
E. Modern feminism has equated Wollstonecraft’s ideas about the popular sentimentalization of women with her view of monarchist systems of government.
The crustaceans known as harpacticoids are very widespread in marine sediments, where they feed on microorganisms by ingesting the sediment particles to which the microorganisms adhere. Heavy metals, such as those found in industrial pollution, readily adhere to sediment particles. Harpacticoids are poisoned by heavy metals but are unaffected by most other pollutants. Therefore the concentration of harpacticoids in an area is a good indication of whether that marine environment contains heavy metals.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
A. Industrial pollution is the principal source of heavy metals in marine sediments.
B. Harpacticoids are the only crustaceans that feed on microorganisms by ingesting sediment particles.
C. Harpacticoids are more susceptible to poisoning by heavy metals than are other marine organisms.
D. The microorganisms that harpacticoids feed on are not killed by pollutants that are harmless to harpacticoids.
E. The microorganisms that harpacticoids feed on absorb heavy metals.