1."One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities."


  2."Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated." 10. 政府必须保证主要城市用于发展的财政支持,因为国家的文化传统发源于并保留在这些主要城市

  3.."Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are." 207. 典礼和仪式有助于给一种文化下定义。没有典礼和仪式,人们就无法很好地了解自己。

  4."The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people." 208. 人们的外表、衣着和行动表现了他们的态度和兴趣。你可以通过观察人们的外表和行为来获知这个社会的想法和价值

  5.. At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species." 121. 在过去不同的时期,很多物种的灭绝都是自然因素造成,而并非人类行为。所以,现在我们花费很大的人力物力去拯救濒临灭绝的物种是没有多少价值的

  6."Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely remote and thus accessible to only a few people." 83. 政府应该保护那些疆域范围内的偏远地区,尽管这些地区人烟稀少

  7."The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question authority." 142.当很多人都质疑权威时候社会才会繁荣富强。

  8."Many problems of modem society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."


  9."There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."


  10."Laws should not be stationary and fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."


  11."Scandals—whether in politics, academia, or other areas—can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."


  12."Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy."


  13."'In this age of intensive media coverage, it is no longer possible for a society to regard any woman or man as a hero. The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."


  14. "It is primarily through identification through social groups that we define ourselves."

  我们定义自己,最重要的是通过我们和社会群体的不同来实现的。(不太好翻) %%%%%我们定义自己,最主要是通过我们对社会集体的参与和认识来实现的。 (一个孤立的人只有参与到社会集体中去,才能够定义自己。)

  15. "The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."


  16.-"The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus." ?? 195. 政治的目标不应该是追求一个理想,而是寻找普遍合理的大多数人的意见

  17."The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little." 160. 一个好的领导最主要的品质就是对某些特定原则和目标的坚持。任何领导,如果他很容易受到大众化观点的影响,那他就一事无成。

  18."In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings - trials, debates, meetings, etc. - that are televised, the more society will benefit."


  19."Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them."


  20."In any profession—business, politics, education, government—those in power should step down after five years. The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership."


  21."Such nonmainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by mainstream science."