1. counterproductive adj.产生相反效果(结果)的
e.g. It is counterproductive to be too tough: it just makes the staff resentful.
e.g. Although the speaker overlooks certain circumstances in which undueskepticism might be counterproductive, and even harmful, on balance I agree thatwe should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance.
2. seminal adj.萌芽的，潜在的;开创性的;有重大影响的
e.g. in the seminal state (在萌芽状态)|| seminal thoughts || seminal principle(基本原则)
e.g. a seminal book/poet || This experiment was to have a seminal influence on his own political development.
3. forgo v.放弃 (The choice to forgo his security is always available, although it might carry unpleasant consequence)
4. intuition n.直觉 (I will trust my strong intuition that free will is an essential part of our being as humans.)
5. satisfy v.证明是正当的，公证的;为…寻找正当理由
e.g. Such action can be justified on the grounds of greater efficiency.
e.g. In the final analysis, government cannot philosophically justify assisting large cities for the purpose of either promoting or preserving the nation's cultural traditions; nor is government assistance necessary toward these ends.
6. resort to … 诉诸…
e.g. no necessity to resort to violent actions such as demonstration, riot or rebel.
7. hinge on … 以…为转移，靠…转动
e.g. The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement at best.
8. at best 最多，充其量;以最乐观的观点来看
9. collaborate to …
e.g. For example, scientists, researchers, and even computer programmers must collaborate to establish common goals, coordinate efforts, and meet time lines.
10. lend some credence to … 提供支持
e.g. While our everyday experience might lend credence to this assertion.
e.g. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics lend some credence to this position, by suggesting that these determining physical forces include our own individual genetic makeup.