一、 开头

  In the argument, the …(主题对象) recommends that …(对结论做论述,基本上可以抄原文,用另外一种方式表达即可)。To support this recommendation the argument point out that …(说明文章用了什么论据去证明观点了,同上抄袭即可) however …This argument is logically flawed in several critical respects (说明这篇文章逻辑上是有缺陷的)。


  1. 调查结果没有证据申明

  To begin with, the argument depends on the assumption that… (阐述说出了一个没有根据的申明,并说出文中的原因) —rather than for some other reasons. Yet it is entirely possible that… (说明这种猜测可能的原因) or some other factor. Without ruling out all other reasons why… (重述这个申明)…(说出反方向的结论)。

  2. 提到了样本,但是数据不具有代表性(数据不够)

  Firstly, the author provides no evidence that the survey is statistically reliable. Perhaps the survey’s sample is not sufficient in size or representative of the quality of …(说明对象的数量和质量不够) For that matter, this survey is not strong enough to establish causation between… (在这里列出原因和结果,做比较) However, the other reasons of the survey which (叙述其他原因下的情况)。 As a result, without the evidence that the survey is statistically reliable the author cannot justifiably draw any conclusion by relying on this survey。

  3. 猜测,但是没有证据

  Thirdly, the argument assumes that… (阐述文中的猜测) However, the letter provides no evidence to substantiate this assumption. In fact, the letter suggests that this might be the case. By admitting that …, the letter implies that …说明影响他们happy的因素还有其他的方面,不光是研究中所列举。


  1. 时间上的错误类比

  To begin with…(陈述某个数据) may not a reliable date of that rate would be now(和现在相比较是不可信的)。 Perhaps the… (反例), For that matter, perhaps …(说出反例的情况下会导致何种结果)。 In short, without ruling out other possible reasons for …(假设说出针对反例应该怎么做)the memo’s author cannot convince me on the basis of …(说出应该有的结论)。


  3. 两个事实错误的类比

  Even if…(让步,即使某个条件成立) the argument unfairly assumes that…(说明错误的类比的情况)。 It is entirely possible that the …(比较对象) own different situations. Perhaps …(具体说出反例) Without accounting for such differences between the two places is unreliable。

  4. 错误的推论

  Even if …(让步,即使某个条件成立)the argument relied on the future assumption that …(说出要让步的是事实)。 Yet the only evidence the argument offer to substantiate this assumption (说出文中的根据)。 Perhaps …(说出有可能出现的其他情况导致这个事实)if so, (说出不一样的结果,与上面事实相矛盾)。 Or…(其他的情况) In short, without more information about…(对上面的可能情况总结) were established it is impossible to assess …(回到上面的结论)




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