1. Meteorite explosions in the Earth’s atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century. The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program?
A. Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.
B. The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth’s atmosphere.
C. It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.
D. Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.
E. It is not certain what the system’s response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.
2. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true?
A. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.
B. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal service.
C. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
D. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.
E. If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.
3. Rural households have more purchasing power than do urban or suburban households at the same income level, since some of the income urban and suburban households use for food and shelter can be used by rural households for other needs.
Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above?
A. The average rural household includes more people than does the average urban or suburban household.
B. Rural households have lower food and housing costs than do either urban or suburban households.
C. Suburban households generally have more purchasing power than do either rural or urban households.
D. The median income of urban and suburban households is generally higher than that of rural households.
E. All three types of households spend more of their income on housing than on all other purchases combined.
4. When a polygraph test is judged inconclusive, this is no reflection on the examinee. Rather, such a judgment means that the test has failed to show whether the examinee was truthful or untruthful. Nevertheless, employers will sometimes refuse to hire a job applicant because of an inconclusive polygraph test result.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
A. Most examinees with inconclusive polygraph test results are in fact untruthful.
B. Polygraph tests should not be used by employers in the consideration of job applicants.
C. An inconclusive polygraph test result is sometimes unfairly held against the examinee.
D. A polygraph test indicating that an examinee is untruthful can sometimes be mistaken.
E. Some employers have refused to consider the results of polygraph tests when evaluating job applicants.
5. (Z1) That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia’s coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.
Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?
A. If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia’s total coal production has doubled in that period of time.
B. Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall output in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.
C. If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.
D. If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine’s overall output has declined or remained constant.
E. In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.