Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henry found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types. In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.
GWD-10-Q4 N-2-Q10 G-10-Q4
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henry’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henry’s findings.
B. Recent research suggests that Henry’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C. Henry’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D. Henry’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henry’s findings using more recent experimental methods.
GWD-10-Q5 N-2-Q11 G-10-Q5
The passage is primarily concerned with
A. evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B. discussing explanation for an unexpected scientific finding
C. examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D. questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E. presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis
GWD-10-Q6 N-2-Q12 G-10-Q6
The passage mostly agree that Henry’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite