11. The annual Journal for Publication, which often solicits articles, publishes only those articles that are both submitted before March 6 and written by certified psychoanalysts, Stevens, who publishes frequently in psychoanalytic literature, submitted an article to the Journal before March 6. This article was accepted for publication in the Journal.
Which one of the following conclusions follows logically from the statement above?
(A) Stevens is a psychoanalyst.
(B) The Journal frequently accepts Stevens’ articles.
(C) Stevens is an authority on a large number of topics in psychoanalysis.
(D) The Journal asked Stevens to write an article.
(E) Stevens’ recently accepted article will be interesting to Journal readers.
Arguing that there was no trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages because there are no written records of such trade is like arguing that the yeti, an apelike creature supposedly existing in the Himalayas, does not exist because there have been no scientifically confirmed sightings. A verifiable sighting of the yeti would prove that the creature does exist, but the absence of sightings cannot prove that it does not.
12. Which one of the following best expresses the point of the argument?
(A) Evidence for the existence of trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages is, like evidence for the existence of the yeti, not scientifically confirmed.
(B) In order to prove that in the early Middle Ages there was trade between Europe and East Asia it is necessary to find both Asian and European evidence that such trade existed.
(C) That trade between Europe and East Asia did not exist in the early Middle Ages cannot be established simply by the absence of a certain sort of evidence that this trade existed.
(D) The view that there was trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages can only be disproved by showing that no references to this trade exist in surviving records.
(E) There is no more evidence that trade between Europe and East Asia existed in the early Middle Ages than there is that the yeti exists.
13. Which one of the following considerations, if true, best counters the argument?
(A) Most of the evidence for the existence of trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages is archaeological and therefore does not rely on written records.
(B) Although written records of trade in East Asia in the early Middle Ages survived, there are almost no Europe documents from that period that mention trade at all.
(C) Any trade between Europe and East Asia in the early Middle Ages would necessarily have been of very low volume and would have involved high-priced items, such as precious metals and silk.
(D) There have been no confirmed sightings of the yeti, but there is indirect evidence, such as footprints, which if it is accepted as authentic would establish the yeti’s existence.
(E) There are surviving European and East Asian written records from the early Middle Ages that do not mention trade between the two regions but would have been very likely to do so if this trade had existed.
14. When the economy is in a recession, overall demand for goods and services is low. If overall demand for goods and services is low, bank interest rates are also low. Therefore, if bank interest rates are not low, the economy is not in a recession.
The reasoning in which one of the following most closely parallels the reasoning in the argument above?
(A) If the restaurant is full, the parking lot will be full, and if the parking lot is full, the restaurant is full, so if the parking lot is not full, the restaurant is not full.
(B) If the fish is ready, it is cooked all the way through, and if it is cooked through it will be white, so if the fish is not white, it is not ready.
(C) If pterodactyls flew by flapping their wings, they must have been warm-blooded, so if they were cold-blooded, they must have flown only by gliding, if they flew at all.
(D) If you want to put in pleats, you will have to double the amount of material for the skirt, and that means you will have none left for the top, so if you put in pleats you will not be able to make the top.
(E) If economic forecasters are right, there will be inflation, and if there is inflation, the governing party will lose the election, so if it does lose the election, the economic forecasters were right.
15. Twenty years ago the Republic of Rosinia produced nearly 100 million tons of potatoes, but last year the harvest barely reached 60 million tons. Agricultural researchers, who have failed to develop new higher yielding strains of potatoes, are to blame for this decrease, since they have been concerned only with their own research and not with the needs of Rosinia.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Any current attempts by agricultural researchers to develop higher-yielding potato strains are futile.
(B) Strains of potatoes most commonly grown in Rosinia could not have produced the yields last year that they once did.
(C) Agricultural researchers often find concrete solutions to practical problems when investigating seemingly unrelated questions.
(D) Wide fluctuations in the size of the potato crop over a twenty-year period are not unusual.
(E) Agricultural research in Rosinia is funded by government grants.
16. An ancient Pavonian text describes how an army of one million enemies of Pavonia stopped to drink at a certain lake and drank the lake dry. Recently, archaeologists discovered that water-based life was suddenly absent just after the event was alleged by the text to have occurred. On the basis of reading the text and an account of the archaeological evidence, some students concluded that the events described really took place.
When one of the following is a questionable technique used by the students to reach their conclusion?
(A) making a generalization about historical events on the basis of a single instance of that type of event
(B) ignoring available, potentially useful counterevidence
(C) rejecting a hypothesis because it is seemingly self-contradictory
(D) considering people and locations whose existence cannot be substantiated by modern historians
(E) taking evidence that a text has correctly described an effect to show that the text has correctly described the cause
17. Samples from the floor of a rock shelter in Pennsylvania were dated by analyzing the carbon they contained. The dates assigned to samples associated with human activities formed a consistent series, beginning with the present and going back in time, a series that was correlated with the depth from which the samples came. The oldest and deepest sample was dated at 19,650 years before the present, plus or minus 2,400 years. Skeptic, viewing that date as too early and inconsistent with the accepted date of human migration into North America, suggested that the samples could have been contaminated by dissolved “old carbon” carried by percolating groundwater from nearby coal deposits.
Which one of the following considerations, if true, argues most strongly against the suggestion of the skeptics?
(A) No likely mechanism of contamination involving percolating groundwater would have affected the deeper samples from the site without affecting the uppermost sample.
(B) Not every application of the carbon-dating procedure has led to results that have been generally acceptable to scientists.
(C) There is no evidence that people were using coal for fuel at any time when the deepest layer might have been laid down.
(D) No sample in the series, when retested by the carbon-dating procedure, was assigned an earlier date than that assigned to a sample from a layer above it.
(E) No North American site besides the one in Pennsylvania has ever yielded a sample to which the carbon-dating procedure assigned a date that was comparably ancient.
18. Those influenced by modern Western science take it for granted that a genuine belief in astrology is proof of a credulous and unscientific mind. Yet, in the past, people of indisputable intellectual and scientific brilliance accepted astrology as a fact. Therefore, there is no scientific basis for rejecting astrology.
The argument is most vulnerable to criticism on which one of the following grounds?
(A) A belief can be consistent with the available evidence and accepted scientific theories at one time but not with the accepted evidence and theories of a later time.
(B) Since it is controversial whether astrology has a scientific basis, any argument that attempts to prove that it has will be specious.
(C) Although the conclusion is intended to hold in all cultures, the evidence advanced in its support is drawn only from those cultures strongly influenced by modern Western science.
(D) The implicit assumption that all practitioners of Western science believe in astrology is false.
(E) The fact that there might be legitimate nonscientific reasons for rejecting astrology has been overlooked.
19. Amy McConnell is considering running for election against the incumbent, Gregory Lutz. If Lutz has a large campaign fund, then he is already far ahead, and McConnell will not run against him. If Lutz does not have a large campaign fund, McConnell will scrutinize Lutz’s record for any hints of scandal that she could use against him. Anything of a scandalous nature would increase McConnell’s chances of winning, and she would campaign for election. If Lutz has a clean record, however, McConnell will not run against him.
Given the information in the passage, which one of the following must be false?
(A) Lutz does not have a large campaign fund, and McConnell does not run against him.
(B) Lutz’s record contains items that would increase McConnell’s chances of winning, and she runs against him.
(C) Lutz’s record contains scandalous items, and McConnell does not run against him.
(D) Lutz’s record contains nothing that would increase McConnell’s chances of winning, and she runs against him.
(E) Lutz has a large campaign fund, and McConnell does not run against him.
20. Psychotherapy has been described as a form of moral coercion. However, when people are coerced, their ability to make choices is restricted, and the goal of psychotherapy is to enhance people’s ability to make choices. Hence, psychotherapy cannot possibly be a form of coercion.
Which one of the following describes a flaw in the argument?
(A) The position being argued against is redefined unfairly in order to make it an easier target.
(B) Psychotherapy is unfairly criticized for having a single goal, rather than having many complex goals.
(C) No allowance is made for the fact that the practice or results of psychotherapy might run counter to its goals.
(D) The goals of psychotherapy are taken to justify any means that are used to achieve those goals.
(E) It offers no argument to show that moral coercion is always undesirable.
11. A 12. C 13. E 14. B 15. B
16. E 17. A 18. A 19. D 20. C