16. The ancient Romans understood the principles of water power very well and in some outlying parts of their empire they made extensive and excellent use of water as an energy sources. This makes it all the more striking that the Romans made do without water power in regions dominated by large cities.
Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the difference described above in the Romans’ use of water power?
(A) The ancient Romans were adept at constructing and maintaining aqueducts that could carry quantities of water sufficient to supply large cities over considerable distances.
(B) In the areas in which water power was not used water flow in rivers and streams was substantial throughout the year but nevertheless exhibited some seasonal variation.
(C) Water power was relatively vulnerable to sabotage but any damage could be quickly and inexpensively repaired.
(D) In most areas to which the use of water power was not extended other more traditional sources of energy continued to be used.
(E) In heavily populated areas the introduction of water power would have been certain to cause social unrest by depriving large numbers of people of their livelihood.
17. From a book review: The authors blithely claim that there are “three basic ways to store energy: as heat, as electricity or as kinetic energy.” However, I cannot call to mind any affective ways to store energy as electricity, whereas any capable student of physics could readily suggest a few more ways to store energy: chemical, gravitational, nuclear.
The reviewer makes which one of the following criticisms of a claim that appears in the book under review?
(A) There is no reason to consider any particular way to store energy any more basic than any other.
(B) The list given of ways to store energy is possibly inaccurate and certainly not exhaustive.
(C) It is overly limiting to treat basic ways to store energy as a question unrelated to the question of effective ways to use energy.
(D) What needs to be considered is not whether various ways to store energy are basic but whether they are effective.
(E) Except possibly for electricity, all ways to store energy are equally effective and therefore equally basic.
18. There is no mystery as to why figurative painting revived in the late 1970s. People want to look at recognizable images. Sorting out art theories reflected in abstract paintings is no substitute for the sense of empathy that comes form looking at a realistic painting of a figure in a landscape. Perhaps members of the art-viewing public resented abstract art because they felt that its lack of realistic subject matter was a rejection of the viewers and their world.
Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
(A) Abstract paintings often include shapes or forms that are suggestive of real objects or emotions.
(B) The art-viewing public wished to see traditional subjects treated in a nontraditional manner.
(C) Paintings that depict a recognizable physical world rather than the emotional world of the artist’s life require more artistic talent to create.
(D) The general public is unable to understand the theories on which abstract painting is based.
(E) The artistic preferences of the art-viewing public stimulated the revival.
19. Valitania’s long-standing practice of paying high salaries to its elected politicians has had a disastrous effect on the level of integrity among politicians in that country. This is because the prospect of earning a high salary is always attractive to anyone whose primary aim in life is to make money, so that inevitably the wrong people must have been attracted into Valitanian politics: people who are more interested in making money than in serving the needs of the nation
Which one of the following, if true, world weaken the argument?
(A) Many Valitanian candidates for elected office spend some of their own money to finance their campaigns.
(B) Most Valitanian elective offices have four-year terms.
(C) No more people compete for elected office when officeholders are paid well than when they are paid poorly.
(D) Only politicians who rely on their offices for income tend to support policies that advance their own selfish interests.
(E) Most of those who are currently Valitanian politicians could have obtained better-paid work outside politics.
Policy Adviser: Freedom of speech is not only a basic human right; it is also the only rational policy for this government to adopt. When ideas are openly aired, good idea flourish, silly proposals are easily recognized as such, and dangerous ideas can be responded to by rational argument. Nothing is ever gained by forcing citizens to disseminate their thoughts in secret.
20. The policy adviser’s method of persuasion, in recommending a policy of free speech to the government, is best described by which one of the following?
(A) a circular justification of the idea of free speech as an idea that flourishes when free speech is allowed
(B) advocating respect for basic rights of citizens for its own sake
(C) a coupling of moral ideals with self-interest
(D) a warning about the difficulty of suppressing the truth
(E) a description of an ideal situation that cannot realistically be achieved
21. Which one of the following, if true, world most strengthen the argument?
(A) Most citizens would tolerate some limits on freedom of speech.
(B) With or without a policy of freedom of speech, governments respond to dangerous ideas irrationally.
(C) Freedom of religion and freedom of assembly are also basic human rights that governments must recognize.
(D) Governments are less likely to be overthrown if they openly adopt a policy allowing freedom of speech.
(E) Great ideas have flourished in societies that repress free speech as often as in those that permit it.
22. The trustees of the Avonbridge summer drama workshop have decided to offer scholarships to the top 10 percent of local applicants and the top 10 percent of nonlocal applicants as judged on the basis of a qualifying audition. They are doing this to ensure that only the applicants with the most highly evaluated auditions are offered scholarships to the program.
Which one of the following points out why the trustees’ plan might not be effective in achieving its goal?
(A) The best actors can also apply for admission to another program and then not enroll in the Avonbridge program.
(B) Audition materials that produce good results for one actor may disadvantage another, resulting in inaccurate assessment.
(C) The top 10 percent of local and nonlocal applicants might not need scholarships to the Avonbridge program.
(D) Some of the applicants who are offered scholarships could have less highly evaluated auditions than some of the applicants who are not offered scholarships.
(E) Dividing applicants into local and nonlocal groups is unfair because it favors nonlocal applicants.
23. Book Review: When I read a novel set in a city I know well, I must see that the writer knows the city as well as I do if I am to take that writer seriously. If the writer is faking, I know immediately and do not trust the writer. When a novelist demonstrates the required knowledge, I trust the story teller, so I trust the tale. This trust increases my enjoyment of a good novel. Peter Lee’s second novel is set in San Francisco, in this novel, as in his first, Lee passes my test with flying colors.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage?
(A) The book reviewer enjoys virtually any novel written by a novelist whom she trusts.
(B) If the book reviewer trusts the novelist as a storyteller, the novel in question must be set in a city the book reviewer knows well.
(C) Peter Lee’s first novel was set in San Francisco.
(D) The book reviewer does not trust any novel set in a city that she does not know well.
(E) The book reviewer does not believe that she knows San Francisco better than Peter Lee does.
24. Someone’s benefiting from having done harm to another person is morally justifiable only if the person who was harmed knew that what was done could cause that harm but consented to its being done anyway.
Which of the following judgments most closely conforms to the principle above?
(A) Attempting to avoid being kept after school as punishment for breaking a window, Sonia falsely claimed that her brother had broken it; Sonia’s action was morally unjustifiable since it resulted in both children being kept after school for something only Sonia had done.
(B) Since Ned would not have won the prize for best model airplane if Penny’s brother had not inadvertently damaged her entry while playing with it. Ned is morally unjustified in accepting his prize.
(C) Wesley, a doctor, persuade Max to take part in a medical experiment in which a new drug was being tested: since Wesley failed to warn Max about the serious side effects of the drug and the drug proved to have no other effects, Wesley was morally unjustified in using the results obtained from Max in his report.
(D) Because Roger’s mother suffered severe complications as a result of donating a kidney to him for lifesaving kidney transplant, it was morally unjustifiable for Roger to receive the transplant, even though his mother, herself a doctor, had been eager for the transplant to be performed.
(E) For James, who was convicted of having defrauded a large number of people out of their savings and wrote a book about his scheme while in prison, to be denied the profits from his book would be morally unjustifiable since he was already been punished for his crime.
25. Certain governments subsidize certain basic agricultural products in order to guarantee an adequate domestic production of them. But subsidies encourage more intensive farming, which eventually leads to soil exhaustion and drastically reduced yields.
The situation above is most nearly similar to which one of the following situations with respect to the relationship between the declared intent of a government practice and a circumstance relevant to it?
(A) Certain governments subsidize theaters in order to attract foreign tourists. But tourists rarely choose a destination for the theatrical performances it has to offer.
(B) Certain governments restrict imports in order to keep domestic producers in business. But, since domestic producers do not have to face the full force of foreign competition, some domestic producers are able to earn inordinately high profits.
(C) Certain governments build strong armed forces in order to forestall armed conflict, but in order to maintain the sort of discipline and morale that keeps armed forces strong, those forces must be used in actual combat periodically.
(D) Certain governments reduce taxes on business in order to stimulate private investment. But any investment is to some extent a gamble, and new business ventures are not always as successful as their owners hoped.
(E) Certain governments pass traffic laws in order to make travel safer. But the population-driven growth in volumes of traffic often has the effect of making travel less safe despite the passage of new traffic laws.
16. E 17. B 18. E 19. E 20. C
21. D 22. D 23. E 24. C 25. C