11. For democracy to survive, it is imperative that the average citizen be able to develop informed opinions about important policy issues. In today’s society, this means that citizens must be able to develop informed opinions on many scientific subjects, from ecosystems to defense system. Yet, as scientific knowledge advances, the average citizen is increasingly unable to absorb enough information to develop informed opinions on many important issues.
Of the following, which one follows logically from the passage?
(A) Scientists have a duty to educate the public.
(B) The survival of democracy is threatened by the advance of scientific knowledge.
(C) Every citizen has a duty to and can become scientifically literate.
(D) The most effective democracy is one that is the most scientifically unsophisticated.
(E) Democracy will survive if there are at least some citizens who are capable of developing informed opinions on important scientific issues.
12. By dating fossils of pollen and beetles, which returned after an Ice Age glacier left an area, it is possible to establish an approximate date when a warmer climate developed. In one glacial area, it appears from the insect record that a warm climate developed immediately after the melting of the glacier. From the pollen record, however, it appears that the warm climate did not develop until long after the glacier disappeared.
Each one of the following, if true, helps to explain the apparent discrepancy EXCEPT:
(A) Cold-weather beetle fossils can be mistaken for those of beetles that live in warm climates.
(B) Warm-weather plants cannot establish themselves as quickly as can beetles in a new environment.
(C) Beetles can survive in a relatively barren postglacial area by scavenging.
(D) Since planes spread unevenly in a new climate, researchers can mistake gaps in the pollen record as evidence of no new overall growth.
(E) Beetles are among the oldest insect species and are much older then many warm-weather plants.
13. Using clean-coal technologies to “repower” existing factories promises ultimately a substantial reduction of polluting emissions, and will affect the full range of pollutants implicated in acid rain. The strategy of using these technologies could cut sulfur dioxide emission by more then 80 percent and nitrogen oxide emissions by more than 50 percent. The emission of smaller quantity of nitrogen pollutants would in turn reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere.
Which one of the following statements is an inference that can be drawn from the information given in the passage?
(A) Sulfur dioxide emissions are the most dangerous pollutants implicated in acid rain.
(B) Noxious ozone is formed in factories by chemical reactions involving sulfur dioxide.
(C) Twenty percent of the present level of sulfur dioxide emissions in the atmosphere is not considered a harmful level.
(D) A substantial reduction of polluting emissions will be achieved by the careful design of new factories.
(E) The choice of technologies in factories could reduce the formation of noxious ozone in the troposphere.
14. Joshua Smith’s new novel was criticized by the book editor for The Daily Standard as implausible. That criticism, like so many other criticisms from the same source in the past, is completely unwarranted, as anyone who has actually read the novel would agree. Each one of the incidents in which Smith’s hero gets involved is the kind of incident that could very well have happened to someone or other.
Which one of the following is the most serious error of reasoning in the argument?
(A) It relies on the assumption that a criticism can legitimately by dismissed as unwarranted if it is offended by someone who had previously displayed questionable judgment.
(B) It ignores the fact that people can agree about something even though what they agree about is not the case.
(C) It calls into question the intellectual integrity of the critic in order to avoid having to address the grounds on which the criticism is based.
(D) It takes for granted that a whole story will have a given characteristics if each of its parts has that characteristics.
(E) It attempts to justify its conclusion by citing reasons that most people would find plausible only if they were already convinced that the conclusion was true.
15. J. J. Thomson, the discoverer of the electron and a recipient of the Nobel Price in physics, trained many physicists, among them seven Nobel Price winners, 32 fellows of the Royal Society of London, and 83 professors of physics. This shows that the skills needed for creative research can be taught and learned.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) J. J. Thomson was an internationally known physicist and scientists came from all over the world to work with him.
(B) All the scientists trained by J. J. Thomson were renowned for their creative scientific research.
(C) At least one of the eminent scientists trained by J. J. Thomson was not a creative researcher before coming to study with him.
(D) Creative research in physics requires research habits not necessary for creative research in other fields.
(E) Scientists who go on to be the most successful researchers often receive their scientific education in classes taught by renowned research scientists.
1. B 2. E 3. E 4. D 5. C