1. A law that is not consistently enforced does not serve its purpose. Law without enforcement is not law; it is merely statute—a promise of law. To institute real law is not merely to declare that such and such behavior is forbidden, it is also to punish those who violate that edict. Furthermore, those who enforce law must punish without favor for their friends or malice for their enemies. To punish only those one dislike while forgiving others is not to enforce law but to engage in the arbitrary and unjust exercise of power.
The main point of the passage is that instituting real law consists in
(A) the exercise of power
(B) authorizing the enforcement of punishments
(C) the unbiased punishment of prohibited behavior
(D) understanding the purpose of law
(E) clearly defining unacceptable behavior
2. Physiological research has uncovered disturbing evidence linking a number of structural disorders to jogging. Among the ailments seemingly connected with this now-popular sport are spinal disk displacements, stress fractures of the feet and ankles, knee and hip joint deterioration, and tendonitis. Furthermore, these injuries do not occur exclusively among beginning runners—veteran joggers suffer an equal percentage of injuries. What the accumulating data suggest is that the human anatomy is not able to withstand the stresses of jogging.
Which one of the following is an assumption of the argument?
(A) The link between jogging and certain structural disorders appears to be a causal one.
(B) Jogging causes more serious disorders than other sports.
(C) The jogger’s level of experience is a factor determining the likelihood of a jogging injury.
(D) Some sports are safer for the human body than jogging.
(E) The human species is not very durable.
3. All students at Pitcombe College were asked to label themselves conservative, liberal, or middle-of-the-road politically. Of the students, 25 percent labeled themselves conservative, 24 percent labeled themselves liberal, and 51 percent labeled themselves middle-of-the-road. When asked about a particular set of issues, however, 77 percent of the students endorsed what is generally regarded as a liberal position.
If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) All students who labeled themselves liberal endorsed what is generally regarded as a liberal position on that set of issues.
(B) More students who labeled themselves middle-of-the road than students who labeled themselves liberal opposed what is generally regarded as a liberal position on that set of issues.
(C) The majority of students who labeled themselves middle-of-the-road opposed what is generally regarded as a liberal position on that set of issues.
(D) Some students who labeled themselves conservative endorsed what is generally regarded as a liberal position on that set of issues.
(E) Some students who labeled themselves liberal endorsed what is generally regarded as a conservative position on that set of issues.
4. Lenore: It is naive to think that historical explanations can be objective. In evaluating evidence, historians are always influenced by their national, political, and class loyalties.
Victor: Still, the very fact that cases of biased thinking have been detected and sources of bias identified shows that there are people who can maintain objectivity.
Victor’s response does not succeed as a rebuttal of Lenore’s argument because his response
(A) displays the same kind of biased thinking as that against which Lenore’s argument it directed
(B) does not address the special case of historians who purposely distort evidence in order to promote their own political objectives
(C) fails to provide examples of cases in which biased thinking has been detected and the source of that bias identified
(D) does not consider sources of bias in historical explanation other than those that are due to national, political, and class loyalties
(E) overlooks the possibility that those who detect and identify bias are themselves biased in some way
5. The museum’s night security guard maintains that the thieves who stole the portrait did not enter the museum at any point at or above ground level. Therefore, the thieves must have gained access to the museum from below ground level.
The flawed pattern of reasoning in the argument above is most similar to that in which one of the following?
(A) The rules stipulate the participants in the contest be judged on both form and accuracy. The eventual winner was judged highest in neither category, so there must be a third criterion that judges were free to invoke.
(B) The store’s competitors claim that the store in selling off the shirts at those prices, neither made any profit nor broke even. Consequently, the store’s customers must have been able to buy shirts there at less than the store’s cost.
(C) If the census is to be believed, the percentage of men who are married is higher than the percentage of women who are married. Thus, the census must show a higher number of men than of women overall.
(D) The product label establishes that this insecticide is safe for both humans and pet. Therefore, the insecticide must also be safe for such wild mammals as deer and rabbits.
(E) As had generally been expected, not all questionnaires were sent in by the official deadline. It follows that plans must have been made for the processing of questionnaires received late.