24. “A powerful business leader has far more opportunity to influence the course of a community or a nation than does any government official.”
1. 每一个政府官员都很难自己做出决策。每一个政令的颁布表面上仿佛是由一个人宣布的，其实背后的程序过程都是十分繁杂的。seperation of the three powers(the legislative, executive and judicial powers) In this work he argued that the three powers a state has are the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial and that for a state to remain democratic, these powers must be separated and there must be checks and balances to prevent a single group from acquiring control over two or more of them.
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restict restriction confine constrain curb administration collective the seperation of the three powers: the legislative the executive and the judicial decision-making carry out implement perform politics-centered economy-centered influence effect impact historical influential abound
on balance=with all things considered admittedly opportunity commerce commercial check-and-balance system 制约平衡制度 scandal illuminate illumination luminous lumination technic technical technology technician technological entity equity seems to pale next to...
Yet the impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
by virture of for the sake of on the account of
1. Admittedly, 领导人的作用有时不象企业家一样apparent. 因为国家的发展，人们的生活，与企业closely related. 比如GATES，领导了信息产业革命;Rockefeller，控制国家的石油命脉took control of American oil supply。企业家通过影响企业的行为，从而直观上影响人course of a community.
2. 但是，企业的一切影响is based on its existence, which is permitted by the government. 政府制定各种policy来允许企业的存在，企业家的一切行为需要被政府允许才能产生作用。
3. Moreover, 影响一个国家，需要强大的power, which can be only generated from absolutely authority. 这样的绝对权力是企业不具备的。Yet even a cursory review of the history reveals substantial evidence that it is the government leader rather than the business leader that can make the pivotal decision when the nation is in crisis. 比如，在经济recession，企业的力量无法使经济好转，revive the economy of the whole nation, 只有政府运用行政措施，制定positive policy to stimulate the companies and thus the economy of the whole nation. 比如Roosevelt. Bill Clinton. financial policy
View 1: Unlike business leader, government power is likely to subject to many more restraints. Our check-and-balance system, the legislation influence and the voting power are all factors that temper the power of government official to the course of a community or a nation. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold the actual legislative and judicial power by their financial supporting of official activities such as governmental elections.
View2: While take more thorough consideration, the government official is likely to have more direct and broad influence on a community and a nation.
Evidence: various approach to influence other than financial approach
In addition the governmental official have the abilities to regulate commerce,
Historical examples of both influential public officials and influential business leaders abound. However, the power of the modern-era business leader is quite different from that of the government official. On balance, the CEO seems to be better positioned to influence the course of community and of nations.
Admittedly the opportunities for the legislator to regulate commerce or of the jurist to dictate rules of equity are official and immediate. No private individual can hold that brand of influence. Yet official power is tempered by our check-and-balance system of government and, in the case of legislators, by the voting power of the electorate. Our business leaders are not so constrained, so, their opportunities far exceed those of any public official. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold de facto legislative and judicial power by way of their direct influence over public officials, as the Clinton Administration’s fund-raising scandal of 1997 illuminated all too well.
The industrial and technological eras have bred such moguls of capitalism as Pullman, Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Gates, who by the nature of their industries and their business savvy, not by force of law, have transformed our economy, the nature of work, and our very day-to-day existence. Of course, many modern-day public servants have made the most of their opportunities—for example, the crime-busting mayor Rudolph Giuliani and the new-dealing President Franklin Roosevelt. Yet their impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
In sum, modem business leaders by virtue of the far-reaching impact of their industries and of their freedom from external constraints, have supplanted lawmakers as the great opportunists of the world and prime movers of society.
26. “Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a business’s success. The importance of location is not likely to change, no matter how advanced the development of computer communications and others kinds of technology becomes.”
Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.
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1. location的重要性体现在：首先，在交通便利的地方，比如沿海地区，near the sea or the river，有利于运输transportation of the cargo…，这也是为什么沿海地区经济通常发达的原因。第二，经济发达的地区，人们的购买能力比较强purchasing power。the demand of various goods may be relatively greater. 有利于the sale.
2. Admittedly, the burgeoning technologies have changed the way of purchasing and selling. However, the extent, to which such technologies will threaten the pivotal role played by location in business, depends on the types of such business. 首先，对于很多retail business, 需要面对面地persuade the consumers to buy，比如化妆品cosmetics. 再比如，try on the clothes and compare the different types and textures…地点仍然是十分重要的。dinner out…
3. Things may be different when it comes to other kinds of companies, for example, those who used to produce large-scale goods make sale depends on the contract signed with other companies. 现在的网络，以及先进的运输，都改变了这些操作模式，他们不再需要面对面接触彼此，也不必过多考虑运输的费用，因为一切都很简单，所以地点变得不那么重要。
View1. To many traditional businesses location still plan an fatal role on its success.
Evidence: restaurants transportation services
View2. as commuter technology and electronic communication become more and more convenient, the intangible locations on the internet have replaced the location in the real world in some business areas.
Evidence: Electronic publications, on line banks, internet retail stores, DELL
In retail, or “storefront,” business, location is still a key ingredient of business success. The extent to which this will continue to be true, given the inexorable growth of Internet commerce, will vary among industries.
In more traditional retail sectors, such as clothing, cosmetics, and home improvement, an in-person visit to a retail store is often necessary—to try on clothes for fit, compare fragrances, or browse among a full selection of textures, colors, and styles. Also, activities such as shopping and dining out are for many consumers enjoyable experiences in themselves, as well as excuses to get out of the house and mingle with others in their community. Finally, shipping costs for large items such as appliances and home-improvement items render home shopping impracticable. Thus, burgeoning technologies pose no serious threat to Main Street, and location will continue to play a pivotal role in the fate of many retail businesses.
Nevertheless, technology-related industries are sure to move away from physical storefronts to virtual ones. Products that can be reduced to digital “bits and bites,” such as books and magazines, recordings, and software applications, are more efficiently distributed electronically. Computer hardware will not disappear from Main Street quite so quickly, though, since its physical look and feel enters into the buying decision. Computer superstores should continue to thrive alongside companies such as Dell, which does not distribute through retail stores.
In conclusion, consumer demand for convenient location will continue with respect to certain tangible products, while for other products alternative distribution systems will gradually replace the storefront, rendering location an obsolete issue.