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  The settlement of the United States has occupied

  traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson

  Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that

  explained American development in terms of westward

  (5) expansion. From the perspective of women’s history,

  Turner’s exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a

  major drawback: his defenders and critics alike have

  reconstructed men’s, not women’s, lives on the frontier.

  However, precisely because of this masculine orientation,

  (10)revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on women’s

  experience introduces new themes into women’s

  history—woman as lawmaker and entrepreneur—and,

  consequently, new interpretations of women’s relation-

  ship to capital, labor, and statute.

  (15)Turner claimed that the frontier produced the indivi-

  dualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and

  that this individualism in turn promoted democratic

  institutions and economic equality. He argued for the

  frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and

  (20) historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century

  who considered women in the West, when they consid-

  ered women at all, fell under Turner’s spell. In their

  works these authors tended to glorify women’s contribu-

  tions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradi-

  (25) tion, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable

  lot, free from the constraints binding their eastern sisters.

  This interpretation implied that the West provided a

  congenial environment where women could aspire to

  their own goals, free from constrictive stereotypes and

  (30) sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology, the frontier

  had furnished “a gate of escape from the bondage of the

  past.”

  By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier

  Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reac-

  (35) tionist writers took the view that frontier women were

  lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu that intensi-

  fied the worst aspects of gender relations. The renais-

  sance of the feminist movement during the 1970’s led to

  the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad

  (40) dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives

  similar to the live of women in the East. In one now-

  standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence of

  the “cult of true womanhood” and the illusionary qual-

  ity of change on the westward journey. Recently the

  (45) Stasist position has been revised but not entirely

  discounted by new research.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) provide a framework within which the history of

  women in nineteenth-century America can be

  organized.

  (B) discuss divergent interpretations of women’s

  experience on the western frontier

  (C) introduce a new hypothesis about women’s

  experience in nineteenth-century America

  (D) advocate an empirical approach to women’s

  experience on the western frontier

  (E) resolve ambiguities in several theories about

  women’s experience on the western frontier

  2. Which of the following can be inferred about the

  novelists and historians mentioned in lines 19-20?

  (A) They misunderstood the powerful influence of

  constrictive stereotypes on women in the East.

  (B) They assumed that the frontier had offered more

  opportunities to women than had the East.

  (C) They included accurate information about women’s

  experiences on the frontier.

  (D) They underestimated the endurance and fortitude of

  frontier women.

  (E) They agreed with some of Turner’s assumptions

  about frontier women, but disagreed with other

  assumptions that he made.

  3. Which of the following, if true, would provide

  additional evidence for the Stasists’ argument as it is

  described in the passage?

  (A) Frontier women relied on smaller support groups of

  relatives and friends in the West than they had in the

  East.

  (B) The urban frontier in the West offered more

  occupational opportunity than the agricultural

  frontier offered.

  (C) Women participated more fully in the economic

  decisions of the family group in the West than they

  had in the East.

  (D) Western women received financial compensation for

  labor that was comparable to what women received

  in the East.

  (E) Western women did not have an effect on divorce

  laws, but lawmakers in the West were more

  responsive to women’s concerns than lawmakers in

  the East were.

  4. According to the passage, Turner makes which of the

  following connections in his Frontier Thesis?

  Ⅰ. A connection between American individualism and

  economic equality

  Ⅱ. A connection between geographical expansion and

  social change

  Ⅲ. A connection between social change and financial

  prosperity

  (A) I only

  (B)Ⅱonly

  (C) Ⅲ only

  (D) Ⅰand Ⅱ only

  (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

  5. It can be inferred that which of the following statements

  is consistent with the Reactionist position as it is

  described in the passage?

  (A) Continuity, not change, marked women’s lives as

  they moved from East to West.

  (B) Women’s experience on the North American frontier

  has not received enough attention from modern

  historians.

  (C) Despite its rigors, the frontier offered women

  opportunities that had not been available in the East.

  (D) Gender relations were more difficult for women in

  the West than they were in the East.

  (E) Women on the North American frontier adopted new

  roles while at the same time reaffirming traditional

  roles.

  6. Which of the following best describes the organization

  of the passage?

  (A) A current interpretation of a phenomenon is

  described and then ways in which it was developed

  are discussed.

  (B) Three theories are presented and then a new

  hypothesis that discounts those theories is described.

  (C) An important theory and its effects are discussed and

  then ways in which it has been revised are described.

  (D) A controversial theory is discussed and then

  viewpoints both for and against it are described.

  (E) A phenomenon is described and then theories

  concerning its correctness are discussed.

  7. Which of the following is true of the Stasist school as it

  is described in the passage?

  (A) It provides new interpretations of women’s

  relationship to work and the law.

  (B) It resolves some of the ambiguities inherent in

  Turnerian and Reactionist thought.

  (C) It has recently been discounted by new research

  gathered on women’s experience.

  (D) It avoids extreme positions taken by other writers on

  women’s history.

  (E) It was the first school of thought to suggest

  substantial revisions to the Frontier Thesis.

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