Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages...
1. The government should enact a bill that would prohibit the sale and consumption of alcohol on commuter trains. Recently, the state, exercising its legitimate authority, passed a law to protect the health of commuters by prohibiting smoking on the commuter line. When intoxicated riders get off the train, get in their cars, and drive, the public is exposed to at least as much danger as are nonsmoking rail passengers who are forced to inhale cigarette smoke.
In arguing that alcohol consumption on commuter trains should be banned, the author relies on
(A) the fact that drinking alcohol is dangerous to one’s health
(B) the principle that people need to be protected from their own actions
(C) the use of emotionally charged descriptions of smoking and drinking alcohol
(D) the reader’s sympathy for the problems of commuters
(E) a comparison between the effects of smoking and the effects of drinking alcohol
2. Creating false marble is an art at which only those with a light hand can excel. Picasso, however, was a great artist, so while he did not have a light hand he could have excelled at creating false marble.
Which one of the following contains a logical error that most closely resembles the logical error contained in the passage?
(A) The police have determined that the murderer left his fingerprints on the knife. Ira’s fingerprints do not match those on the knife, so we can eliminate him as a suspect.
(B) It is true that it is necessary to work hard in order to succeed. However, smith was governor of the state, so it was possible for him to succeed without working hard.
(C) Whenever I eat nuts of any kind I break out in hives. After eating the pie I did not break out, so I know it could not have been real pecan pie.
(D) If the inventory can be sold within the next few months the business can be saved. However, since a sale cannot be concluded quickly, the business will go under.
(E) Only the brave deserve the spoils. Major Wilson has distinguished himself several times for bravery, so surely he deserves the spoils.
3. Cass: War and peace are mutually exclusive. Therefore, a nation cannot be preparing for both war and peace simultaneously.
Stanislaus: But aren’t the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. doing precisely that? They are spending vast amounts of money on war research and armaments while at the same time they are negotiating trade agreements and nuclear arms treaties that are designed to secure peace. Although they are maintaining a shaky peaceful coexistence, they are preparing for both war and peace simultaneously.
In order to refute Cass’s conclusion, Stanislaus
(A) demonstrates that a nation can be at war and at peace at the same time
(B) points out that there are several different meanings to the words “war” and “peace”
(C) uses a different meaning for the term “simultaneously” than Cass does
(D) shows that preparing for war and preparing for peace are not mutually exclusive
(E) changes an argument based on a definition into one based on an ethical consideration
4. According to advertisements, the higher a suntan lotion’s sun protection factor, or SPF, the more protection from sunburn. In order for a suntan lotion to work, however, one has to remember to put it on before going in the sun, put on an adequate amount to cover the skin, and reapply it as needed. Therefore, it really does not matter what SPF a suntan lotion has.
Which one of the following best identifies the error in reasoning made in the passage?
(A) It is unreasonable to assume that the only purpose of a suntan lotion is to provide protection from sunburn.
(B) Because some people get sunburned more easily than others, the fact that there are different SPFs cannot be ignored.
(C) It cannot be concluded that the SPF is not important just because there are requirements for the application of the suntan lotion.
(D) It is unreasonable to assume that all suntan lotions require the same application.
(E) There is no reason to assume that manufacturers are unaware that people sometimes forget to apply suntan lotion before going in the sun.