大家对GMAT写作进行备考,除了接触一些题目之外,还要多看一些GMAT写作范文,了解一下别人的写作思路,然后从中吸取对自己有用的东西。接下来小编为大家带来了新GMAT写作黄金范文第五部分,一起来看看。

  21. “Job security and salary should be based on employee performance, not on years of service. Rewarding employees primarily for years of service discourages people from maintaining consistently high levels of productivity.”

  “工作保险和工资应该建立在雇员绩效的基础上而非工作年限上。主要根据工作年限奖励员工不利于人们保持高水平的生产力。”

  1. 一方面绩效工资会促进工人的劳动生产率,使偷懒的工人得到惩罚;使专心工作投入较大的工人得到补偿增大他们的激励.

  2. 另一方面,单纯的使用绩效工资也可能会打击一部分工人的劳动积极性.因为有一些为公司服务很久的工人可能仅可能是由于年龄的原因劳动生产率下降.而且社会物价的总体水平也是应该考虑的因素之一,当存在通货膨胀时候如果仅依照绩效评价,那么工人整体的生活水平会下降也不利于劳动生产率.

  productivity productive counterproductive security secure salary solely sole performance length incentive motivation enticement stimulus impetus incitement tenured professor associate professor achievement reward average worthwhile amply ample schedule salary condemn判刑,谴责

  loyal royal loyalty refuse adjust counterproductive attract retain reserve withhold uphold criterion criteria security ignore ignorance

  1, 首先,完全根据年限来看,是不利于生产力进步的。——这样员工只要在企业里待着,表现平庸provide third-class performance就可以得到更多的奖励,这显然是不利于整个团队的morale的。一方面,老的不能激发;另一方面,有才干的年轻人也不会愿意加入这个企业。

  2, 但也不能完全只看表现,还要在此同时考虑到年限。因为老员工又同时非常优秀的表现,为企业付出了更多的力量devote their entire life to the development of one corporation。如果完全一视同仁,也不一定更公平。反而很可能使老员工感到不公平treated unfairly,丧失对企业的loyalty。

  3, 应该综合来看,考虑到表现相同的员工,根据服务年限不同得到不同的待遇。

  View1. Performance plays an important role in the assessment procedural of employees.

  View2. It is true that reward employees solely according to their seniority will affect the overall productivity, however, the year of services do contain some indication on specialty and experience. More over, when conducting work assessment of certain positions such as consultant, in which performance become hard to evaluate, seniority acts as useful supplement

  According to the statement, in order to ensure high productivity, companies should base their employees’ salaries and job security solely on job performance, and not on length of service to the company. I agree that salary increases and job security are powerful incentives to high achievement and should generally go to those who do the best work. However, to ensure employee productivity, companies must also reward tenured employees with cost-of-living raises—though not with job security.

  On the one hand, rewarding average job performance with large pay increases or promises of job security is a waste of resources—for two reasons. First, complacent employees will see no reason to become more productive. Secondly, those normally inclined to high achievement may decide the effort isn’t worthwhile when mediocre efforts are amply compensated. Companies should, therefore, adjust their pay schedules so that the largest salaries go to the most productive employees.

  On the other hand, employees who perform their jobs satisfactorily should be given regular, though small, service-based pay increases—also for two reasons. First, the cost of living is steadily rising, so on the principle of fair compensation alone, it is unjust to condemn loyal employees to de facto salary reductions by refusing them cost-of-living raises. Secondly, failure to adjust salaries to reflect the cost of living may be counterproductive for the firm, which will have difficulty attracting and retaining good employees without such a policy.

  In the final analysis, the statement correctly identifies job performance as the single best criterion for salary and job security. However, the statement goes too far; it ignores the fact that a cost-of-living salary increase for tenured employees not only enhances loyalty and, in the end, productivity, but also is required by fairness.

  22. “Clearly, government has a responsibility to support the arts. However, if that support is going to produce anything of value, government must place no restrictions on the art that is produced.”

  To what extent do you agree or disagree with the opinion expressed above? Develop your position by giving specific reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.

  “很明显,政府对支持艺术富有责任。但是,如果需要这个支持产生任何价值,政府必须对产生的艺术不加限制。”

  1. 政府对艺术富有责任这一论断是毫无根据的。事实上政府应该把更多的精力投入到公共产品以及具有外部性的产品的生产与建设上。因为由经济学的理论我们知道这些产品是非竞争非排他的,因此无法由私人部门提供。这也正是需要政府存在的理由。而艺术显然是可以在私人部门解决的。私人收藏和私人装饰都为艺术品提供了广阔的市场,艺术品显然不是公共产品。但是由于艺术品可能具有的外部性,如个人收藏可以让拥有者以外的人赏心悦目,所以政府对艺术进行适当的扶植是应当的。但说政府对艺术负有责任,这显然是言过其实。

  2. 对于需要政府加以扶植的艺术例如公益性质的艺术展览等,政府是需要对其加以限制的。政府的只能就是使社会的总收益最大。如果加以限制可以使其扶持的艺术行为为社会带来更大的收益限制就是必要的。有人可能会反驳说这会对艺术的自由创作带来负面的影响,但事实上绝对的自由是不存在的,适当的限制是对自由的保障。例如有些裸体行为艺术,就应由政府出面限制观看的人群年龄,实际上这并不会影响艺术创作。

  unwarranted baseless groudless bottomless foundationless gratuitous groundless 私人产品private goods 公共产品public goods 外部性externality 非竞争non-rivalry 非排他non-excludability 竞争rivalry 排他excludability 理论 私人部门private sector 公共部门public sector收藏collection

  扶植prop up 扶持support uphold 言过其实paint the devil blacker than he is 为公益的commonweal-oriented 限制constrain confine 负面影响negative impact 正面影响positive impact 绝对的absolute

  保障guarantee safeguard 裸体naked

  1, 艺术的巨大作用毋庸置疑:强调the perpetua永久的l virtue, such as bravery, affection, responsibility, honesty and so forth. The Lord of the rings; 同时,remind people of the intrinsic demerits stemmed from the dark side of humanity, such as aggression and greed. Shakespeare’s Macbeth instruct people that the insatiable贪得无厌 ambition is pernicious. 艺术应该受到支持,以便蓬勃发展。

  2, 但是不能说政府应该扮演这个角色。首先,艺术需要自由的表达,而政府的资助一定在某种程度上限制这种自由。比如The government of Soviet Union, forced all the arts it subsidized to follow the “party line” and squashed those artists who resisted such control. 即使在democratic countries, such control is hidden and indirect, but still exist.

  3, 其次,政府有更多的职责,需要有限的资源去处理。比如很多社会问题非常严重,environment, criminality, education, starvation… it is not a wise decision for the government to allocate the limited resources on arts while ignoring the more urgent demand cited above.

  4, 鉴于以上两点,应该把艺术的扶持工作交给大众。事实上,现在的很多公益机构charitarian are doing an excellent job in supporting the prosperity of arts.

  Optional words:

  Government/ the authorities

  Art/artist

  Support/finance/ patronize/ loan/ sustain/ pledge

  Thesis sentence:

  The inevitable representation of human civilization, art must be count in the responsibilities that government carries. But support without restrictions will probably lead to fruitless.

  View1: government should support art

  Evidence: because arts have very important functions in our civilization. for example:

  Paintings arouse imagination

  Music heal broken heart and purify dirty minds

  View2: unselected supporting of arts will probably lead to fruitless

  Evidence: Some radical forms of arts go beyond the acceptance of the masses and contradict our social moral. for example: posters features blood and violence

  The speaker here argues that government must support the arts but at the same time impose no control over what art is produced. The implicit rationale for government intervention in the arts is that, without it, cultural decline and erosion of our social fabric will result. However, I find no empirical evidence to support this argument, which in any event is unconvincing in light of more persuasive arguments that government should play no part in either supporting or restricting the arts.

  First, subsidizing the arts is neither a proper nor a necessary job for government. Although public health is generally viewed as critical to a society’s very survival and therefore an appropriate concern of government, this concern should not extend tenuously to our cultural “health” or well being. A lack of private funding might justify an exception; in my observation, however, philanthropy is alive and well today, especially among the new technology and media moguls.

  Second, government cannot possibly play an evenhanded role as arts patron. Inadequate resources call for restrictions, priorities, and choices. It is unconscionable to relegate normative decisions as to which art has “value” to a few legislators and jurists, who may be unenlightened in their notions about art. Also, legislators are all too likely to make choices in favor of the cultural agendas of those lobbyists with the most money and influence.

  Third, restricting artistic expression may in some cases encroach upon the constitutional right of free expression. In any case, governmental restriction may chill creativity, thereby defeating the very purpose of subsidizing the arts.

  In the final analysis, government cannot philosophically or economically justify its involvement in the arts, either by subsidy or sanction. Responsibility lies with individuals to determine what art has value and to support that art.

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