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  13. “Responsibility for preserving the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, not to government.”

  “保护自然环境的责任完全属于每个个人,而非政府。”

  1, 个人往往是按照自己的利益办事即使有环保意愿但和个人利益冲突或要损失个人利益时候往往就会选择牺牲环境moreover个人往往是短视的,只关注眼前不注意长远。政府则相反

  2, 环保常常规模很大,个人无力完成。

  3, 诚然每个保护环境的措施都是要个人的参与的。但是这种参与是在政府的统筹下的。象作者那样的论断是草率的

  a tug of war拔河,两派间的激烈竞争 a political tug of war between those in favor of the new legislation and those against it.

  large in scale participation participate ensure preservation individual

  on behalf of 为了 at large 逍遥自在不受限制的;全体地普遍地

  Experience tells us that individuals tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large.

  complete elimination emission automobile nevertheless不过 manufacturer manufacture because voluntarily volunteer voluntary volunteer voluntary voluntarily sacrifice accomplish

  regulatory调整的 enforcement impose necessary standard ensure achieve aside from inherently inherent pandemic全国流行的 epidemic流行的 traverse border environment environmental hazard enemy analysis authority authoritative possess attainment agreed-upon 意见一致的

  1, The proponents of this assertion may argue that the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, therefore, it is reasonable to attribute to each person the responsibility for preserving it. a, 必须要承认的是,我们共同使用环境资源,the condition of the environment may have directly effect on each person。所以,人人都has the obligation to protect the environment from being polluted. b, 只有人人都积极地保护环境,

  2, However, to leave all the responsibility to individuals is hardly a wise decision. Despite of the argument above, we should still not lose the sight of the fact that individuals have strong propensity of self-interest and short-term consideration. 没有政府的监督,很少有人自愿作出牺牲以保护环境(voluntarily make sacrifice to protect the environment.)比如如果政府不forbidden smoking in public,smokers may enjoy their cigarettes whenever they want. Deforestation kill excessively

  很多情况下,重大fatal的保护环境举措,没有政府的支持做不到。比如工厂dumping noxious water into the river/ deforestation/ kill excessively…以上那些行动,个人的力量根本不能阻止prohibit.

  Optional words:

  Preserve/ conserve/ maintain

  Thesis sentence: While individual person can do a lot to protect our natural environment, the responsibility of preservation the overall environment lies in the hands of government with help form each individual in the society.

  View1: Experience tells us that individuals tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large.

  View2:the government has certain advantages in preserving the environment.

  Evidence:

  the government can place certain regulations on the wastes and pollutants towards environment emitted by industries.

  Fines deprived from corporations and individual ones that disobey the environmental regulations can be used on many ways such as preserve the forests, planting trees, create conserved areas that will improve our current situations.

  While nearly everyone would agree in principle that certain efforts to preserve the natural environment are in humankind’s best interest, environmental issues always involve a tug of war among conflicting political and economic interests. For this reason, and because serious environmental problems are generally large in scale, government participation is needed to ensure environmental preservation.

  Experience tells us that individuals (and private corporations owned by individuals) tend to act on behalf of their own short-term economic and political interest, not on behalf of the environment or the public at large. For example, current technology makes possible the complete elimination of polluting emissions from automobiles. Nevertheless, neither automobile manufacturers nor consumers are willing or able to voluntarily make the short-term sacrifices necessary to accomplish this goal. Only the government holds the regulatory and enforcement power to impose the necessary standards and to ensure that we achieve such goals.

  Aside from the problems of self-interest and enforcement, environmental issues inherently involve public health and are far too pandemic in nature for individuals to solve on their own. Many of the most egregious environmental violations traverse state and sometimes national borders. Environmental hazards are akin to those involving food and drug safety and to protecting borders against enemies; individuals have neither the power nor the resources to address these widespread hazards.

  In the final analysis, only the authority and scope of power that a government possesses can ensure the attainment of agreed-upon environmental goals. Because individuals are incapable of assuming this responsibility, government must do so.

  15. “Nations should cooperate to develop regulations that limit children’s access to adult material on the Internet.” *

  *The Internet is a worldwide computer network.

  Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your views with reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading.

  “国家间应该合作发展规范以限制儿童接触英特网上的成人内容。”

  The issue here is whether an international effort to regulate children's access to adult material on the Internet is worthwhile. In my view, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently global nature of the problem.

  Adults everywhere have a serious interest in limiting children's access to pornographic material. Pornographic material tends to confuse children----distorting their notion of sex, of themselves as sexual beings, and of how people ought to treat one another. Particularly in the case of domination and child pornography, the messages children receive from pornographic material cannot contribute in a healthy way to their emerging sexuality. Given this important interest that knows no cultural bounds, we should regulate children's access to sexually explicit material on the internet.

  国际合作在这中间十分必要.因为这种犯罪的遏止如同当年控制臭氧空洞(ozone depletion)的元凶PRIME CRIMINAL(CFC)时候一样单独靠一个国家的力量这种污染是无法遏止的.

  诚然,会遇到很大的政治制约(POLITICAL HURDLE)

  regulate access material worthwhile cooperative regulatory

  universality普遍性广泛性I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently global nature of this problem.

  pornographic色情的 sexual性的性别的 emerging浮现出来的 sexuality 性特征bound contained within national border be akin to emission release phenomenon regulation contamination污染物 contaminate admittedly formidable hurdle compliance 服从顺从consequence结果 cooperate

  1, pornographic material has seriously negative effect on children-misleading their sense of sex, of the normal relationships between people, and of themselves as sexual beings. 儿童的好奇心以及缺乏正确的认识,are vulnerable to the bad influence of such adults materials,从而distract their concentration from study to those distorted notions. 人们有责任和义务帮助孩子,protect them from being hurt and influenced by such materials.

  2, However, 国家范围内的regulations lose their previous effectiveness because of the development of internet. Just as the companies which contaminate the natural environment move to other countries after being punished, so the company offering pornographic materials on line can move to other parts of the world to avoid punishment. 所以,国家联合起来,非常有必要。

  可以通过象环保那样的联合的和约。

  3, Admittedly, 有困难,与甚至敌对的国家hostile 但是不能放弃努力。

  Optional words:

  Regulation/ law/ restriction

  Limit/confine/.control/ hamper/ inhibit/

  Thesis sentence:

  View1: adult material on the internet may have terrible affect on children with immature point of view and judgment.

  Evidence: pornographic material. tends to confuse children----distorting their notion of sex, and of how people ought to treat one another.

  View2:since Internet has no national boundaries, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort.

  Evidence:

  The issue here is whether an international effort to regulate children’s access to adult material on the Internet is worthwhile. In my view, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently pandemic nature of the problem.

  Adults everywhere have a serious interest in limiting access by children to pornographic material. Pornographic material tends to confuse children—distorting their notion of sex, of themselves as sexual beings, and of how people ought to treat one another. Particularly in the case of domination and child pornography, the messages children receive from pornographic material cannot contribute in a healthy way to their emerging sexuality. Given this important interest that knows no cultural bounds, we should regulate children’s access to sexually explicit material on the Internet.

  However, information on the Internet is not easily contained within national borders. Limiting access to such information is akin to preventing certain kinds of global environmental destruction. Consider the problem of ozone depletion thought to be a result of chloroflourocarbon (CFC) emissions. When the government regulated CFC production in the U.S., corporations responsible for releasing CFC’s into the atmosphere simply moved abroad, and the global threat continued. Similarly, the Internet is a global phenomenon; regulations in one country will not stop “contamination” overall. Thus, successful regulation of Internet pornography requires international cooperation, just as successful CFC regulation finally required the joint efforts of many nations.

  Admittedly, any global regulatory effort faces formidable political hurdles, since cooperation and compliance on the part of all nations—even warring ones—is inherently required. Nevertheless, as in the case of nuclear disarmament or global warming, the possible consequences of failing to cooperate demand that the effort be made. And dissenters can always be coerced into compliance politically or economically by an alliance of influential nations.

  In sum, people everywhere have a serious interest in the healthy sexual development of children and, therefore, in limiting children’s access to Internet pornography. Because Internet material is not easily confined within national borders, we can successfully regulate children’s access to adult materials on the Internet only by way of international cooperation.

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