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Directions: The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.

(D) fails to consider fully the possible meanings of the Admiral’s advice

(E) is a futile strategy for solving the problem at hand

16. Investigators concluded that human failure was not responsible for the fatal airplane crash last August, and since that time new and more stringent rules for identifying and reporting mechanical problems have been in effect. That accounts for the fact that reports of airplane mechanical problems have increased in frequency by 50 percent since last August.

Which one of the following is an assumption underlying the argument in the passage?

(A) Airplane travel is still relatively safe, despite the increase in reported mechanical problems.

(B) Mechanical problems in airplanes have increased dramatically since last August.

(C) Mechanical problems in airplanes have not increased by 50 percent since last August.

(D) Airlines are less reluctant to report mechanical problems than they previously were.

(E) Mechanical problems in airplanes have become easier to detect since last August.

17. The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is that it robs the human race. It takes from posterity, as well as the existing generation, and from those who dissent from the opinion even more than from those who hold it. If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth; if it is wrong, they lose what is almost as great a benefit: the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error.

Which one of the following best expresses the conclusion presented in the argument?

(A) Silencing the expression of an opinion is robbing the human race.

(B) Silencing the expression of an opinion harms those who dissent more than those who agree.

(C) Anyone who agrees with an opinion would not want to silence its expression.

(D) Gaining a clearer perception and livelier impression of truth is a great benefit.

(E) The greatest benefit is the opportunity of exchanging truth for error.

18. Brushing your teeth regularly, no matter which toothpaste you use, will reduce your chances of tooth decay. Scientists have concluded that, when you brush, you reduce tooth decay by removing the film of plaque that forms on teeth and gums. So, you can forget about fluorides: brush your teeth carefully and say goodbye to cavities.

Which one of the following is a criticism of the reasoning in the argument?

(A) Brushing with fluoride toothpaste has been shown to reduce tooth decay.

(B) The fact that brushing will reduce tooth decay does not show that fluorides are of no value.

(C) Few people adequately remove plaque by brushing.

(D) People have plaque on their teeth most of the time.

(E) Scientists have been wrong about fluorides.

19. Some good cooks are gourmet cooks who pride themselves on always using extravagantly rich ingredients in elaborate recipes. Some good cooks can be characterized as fast-food cooks. They may use rich ingredients as long as the recipes are easy to follow and take little time. Other good cooks are health food enthusiasts, who are concerned primarily with the nutritional value of food. But even though not all good cooks are big eaters, they all enjoy preparing and serving food.

If the information in the passage is true, which one of the following CANNOT be true?

(A) Most good cooks do not use extravagantly rich ingredients.

(B) Everyone who enjoys preparing and serving food is a good cook.

(C) More good cooks who use extravagantly rich ingredients are big eaters than are good cooks who do not use such ingredients.

(D) There are fewer good cooks who enjoy serving and preparing food than there are good cooks who are big eaters.

(E) Gourmet cooks, fast-food cooks, and cooks who are health food enthusiasts are all big eaters.

20. Most discussions of the factors contributing to improvements in public health greatly underestimate the influence of the values held by individuals. This influence is indicated by the fact that the astonishing decline in mortality from infectious disease during the past century was primarily due to an improvement in living conditions. To a substantial degree, these improvements depended on the emphasis by an increasing share of the population on cleanliness, prudence, and moderation.

The main point of the passage is made primarily by

(A) analyzing existing data on medical practices and health outcomes

(B) presenting a set of related cause-and-effect assertions

(C) applying several general principles to a specific case

(D) presenting a general observation and supporting it with several specific examples

(E) refuting in detail a commonly accepted argument