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  In 1977 the prestigious Ewha Women’s University in

  Seoul, Korea, announced the opening of the first

  women’s studies program in Asia. Few academic

  programs have ever received such public attention. In

  (5) broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as a

  betrayal of national identity, an imitation of Western

  ideas, and a distraction from the real task of national

  unification and economic development. Even supporters

  underestimated the program ; they thought it would be

  (10) merely another of the many Western ideas that had

  already proved useful in Asian culture, akin to airlines,

  electricity, and the assembly line. The founders of the

  program, however, realized that neither view was

  correct. They had some reservations about the appli-

  (15) cability of Western feminist theories to the role of

  women in Asia and felt that such theories should be

  closely examined. Their approach has thus far yielded

  important critiques of Western theory, informed by the

  special experience of Asian women.

  (20) For instance, like the Western feminist critique of the

  Freudian model of the human psyche, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but in

  ways different from those cited by Western theorists.

  The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory

  (25) assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-

  headed family and focuses on the personality formation

  of the individual, independent of society, An analysis

  based on such assumptions could be valid for a highly

  competitive, individualistic society. In the Freudian

  (30) family drama, family members are assumed to be

  engaged in a Darwinian struggle against each other—

  father against son and sibling against sibling. Such a

  concept of projects the competitive model of Western

  society onto human personalities. But in the Asian

  (35) concept of personality there is no ideal attached to indi

  vidualism or to the independent self. The Western model

  of personality development does not explain major char-

  acteristics of the Korean personality, which is social and

  group-centered. The “self” is a social being defined by

  (40) and acting in a group, and the well-being of both men

  and women is determined by the equilibrium of the

  group, not by individual self-assertion. The ideal is one

  of interdependency.

  In such a context, what is recognized as “depen-

  (45) dency” in Western psychiatric terms is not, in Korean

  terms, an admission of weakness or failure. All this bears

  directly on the Asian perception of men’s and women’s

  psychology because men are also “ dependent”, In

  Korean culture, men cry and otherwise easily show their

  (50) emotions, something that might be considered a betrayal

  of masculinity in Western culture. In the kinship-based

  society of Korea, four generations may live in the same

  house, which means that people can be sons and daugh-

  ters all their lives, whereas in Western culture, the roles

  of husband and son, wife and daughter, are often incom-

  patible.

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of

  the passage?

  (A) A critique of a particular women’s studies program

  (B) A report of work in social theory done by a

  particular women’s studies program

  (C) An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses

  of a particular women’s studies program

  (D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying

  women’s studies programs

  (E) An abbreviated history of Korean women’s

  studies programs

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean

  scholars in the field of women’s studies undertook

  an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to

  which of the following?

  (A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women’s studies

  program

  (B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian

  theory

  (C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric

  circles

  (D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to

  adopt the Freudian model

  (E) Their assessment of the relevance and limitations of

  Western feminist theory with respect to Korean

  culture

  3. Which of the following conclusions about the

  introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be

  supported by information contained in the passage?

  (A) Except for technological innovations, few Western

  ideas have been successfully transplanted into

  Korean society.

  (B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society

  is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to

  Korean identity.

  (C) The development of the Korean economy depends

  heavily on the development of new academic

  programs modeled after Western programs.

  (D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted

  for acceptance by Korean society is minimal.

  (E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society

  accelerated after 1977.

  4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast

  media in Korea considered the establishment of the

  Ewha women’s studies program

  (A) praiseworthy

  (B) insignificant

  (C) newsworthy

  (D) imitative

  (E) incomprehensible

  5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position

  taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women’s

  studies program was problematic to the founders of the

  program because those supporters

  (A) assumed that the program would be based on the

  uncritical adoption of Western theory

  (B) failed to show concern for the issues of national

  unification and economic development

  (C) were unfamiliar with Western feminist theory

  (D) were not themselves scholars in the field of

  women’s studies

  (E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory

  6. Which of the following statements is most consistent

  with the view of personality development held by the

  Ewha women’s studies group?

  (A) Personality development occurs in identifiable

  stages, beginning with dependency in childhood

  and ending with independence in adulthood.

  (B) Any theory of personality development, in order

  to be valid, must be universal.

  (C) Personality development is influenced by the

  characteristics of the society in which a person

  lives.

  (D) Personality development is hindered if a person

  is not permitted to be independent.

  (E) No theory of personality development can account

  for the differences between Korean and Western

  culture.

  7. Which of the following statements about the Western

  feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported

  by information contained in the passage?

  (A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on

  Freudian theory.

  (B) It was written after 1977.

  (C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear,

  male-headed family.

  (D) It challenges Freud’s analysis of the role of

  daughters in Western society.

  (E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in

  Western society.

  8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women’s

  studies program cited the program as a threat to which

  of the following?

  Ⅰ. National identity

  Ⅱ. National unification

  Ⅲ. Economic development

  Ⅳ.Family integrity

  (A) Ⅰ only

  (B) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only

  (C) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ only

  (D) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ only

  (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ

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