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  Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early

  history of the United States by applying new social

  research findings on the experiences of European

  migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the

  (5) organizing principle for rewriting the history of prein-

  dustrial North America. His approach rests on four

  separate propositions.

  The first of these asserts that residents of early

  modern England moved regularly about their coun-

  (10) tryside; migrating to the New World was simply a

  “natural spillover.” Although at first the colonies held

  little positive attraction for the English---they would

  rather have stayed home—by the eighteenth century

  people increasingly migrated to America because they

  (15) regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn

  holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in

  America history textbooks, there was never a typical

  New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns

  (20) varied considerably.

  Bailyn’s third proposition suggests two general

  patterns prevailing among the many thousands of

  migrants: one group came as indentured servants,

  another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn

  (25) suggests that those who recruited indentured servants

  were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These

  colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social char-

  acter of people who came to preindustrial North America.

  At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited;

  (30) by the 1730’s, however, American employers demanded

  skilled artisans.

  Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-

  civilized hinterland of the European culture system. He

  is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were

  (35) part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the

  empire into English core and colonial periphery, as

  Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial

  culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in

  the colonies never matched that in England. But what

  (40) of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers

  created effective laws, built a distinguished university,

  and published books? Bailyn might respond that New

  England was exceptional. However, the ideas and insti-

  tutions developed by New England Puritans had power-

  (45) ful effects on North American culture.

  Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to

  some thousands of indentured servants who migrated

  just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experi-

  ence with the political development of the United States.

  (50) Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might

  make such a connection. These indentured servants were

  treated as slaves for the period during which they had

  sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising

  that as soon as they served their time they passed up

  (55) good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their

  personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in

  the west that a peculiarly American political culture

  began, among colonists who were suspicious of

  authority and intensely antiaristocratic.

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to

  colonial North America is supported by information in

  the passage?

  (A) A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North

  America came as indentured servants than as free

  agents interested in acquiring land.

  (B) Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured

  servants were more successful at making a

  livelihood than were farmers and artisans.

  (C) Migrants to colonial North America were more

  successful at acquiring their own land during the

  eighteenth century than during the seven-tenth

  century.

  (D) By the 1730’s, migrants already skilled in a

  trade were in more demand by American

  employers than were unskilled laborers.

  (E) A significant percentage of migrants who came to

  the colonies to acquire land were forced to work as

  field hands for prosperous American farmers.

  2. The author of the passage states that Bailyn failed to

  (A) give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political

  interdependence of the colonies and England

  (B) describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic

  backgrounds preserved their culture in the united

  States

  (C) take advantage of social research on the experi-

  ences of colonists who migrated to colonial North

  America specifically to acquire land

  (D) relate the experience of the migrants to the political

  values that eventually shaped the character of the

  United States

  (E) investigate the lives of Europeans before they came

  to colonial North America to determine more

  adequately their motivations for migrating

  3. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s

  evaluation of Bailyn’s fourth proposition?

  (A) It is totally implausible.

  (B) It is partially correct.

  (C) It is highly admirable.

  (D) It is controversial though persuasive.

  (E) It is intriguing though unsubstantiated.

  4. According to the passage, Bailyn and the author agree

  on which of the following statements about the culture

  of colonial New England?

  (A) High culture in New England never equaled the high

  culture of England.

  (B) The cultural achievements of colonial New

  England have generally been unrecognized by

  historians.

  (C) The colonists imitated the high culture of England,

  and did not develop a culture that was uniquely their

  own.

  (D) The southern colonies were greatly influenced by

  the high culture of New England.

  (E) New England communities were able to create laws

  and build a university, but unable to create anything

  innovative in the arts.

  5. According to the passage, which of the following is true

  of English migrants to the colonies during the

  eighteenth century?

  (A) Most of them were farmers rather than trades

  people or artisans.

  (B) Most of them came because they were unable

  to find work in England.

  (C) They differed from other English people in that

  they were willing to travel.

  (D) They expected that the colonies would offer

  them increased opportunity.

  (E) They were generally not as educated as the

  people who remained in England.

  6. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) comparing several current interpretations of early

  American history

  (B) suggesting that new social research on migration

  should lead to revisions in current interpretations of

  early American history

  (C) providing the theoretical framework that is used by

  most historians in understanding early American

  history

  (D) refuting an argument about early American history

  that has been proposed by social historians

  (E) discussing a reinterpretation of early American

  history that is based on new social research on

  migration

  7. It can be inferred from the passage that American

  history textbooks used to assert that

  (A) many migrants to colonial North America were not

  successful financially

  (B) more migrants came to America out of religious or

  political conviction that came in the hope of

  acquiring land

  (C) New England communities were much alike in

  terms of their economics and demographics

  (D) many migrants to colonial North America failed to

  maintain ties with their European relations

  (E) the level of literacy in New England communities

  was very high

  8. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree

  with which of the following statements about Bailyn’s

  work?

  (A) Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought

  on North American culture

  (B) Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of

  the colonies on Great Britain.

  (C) Bailyn’s description of the colonies as part of an

  Anglo-American empire is misleading and incorrect.

  (D) Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific

  group of migrants to colonial North America.

  (E) Bailyn overemphasizes the experiences of migrants

  to the New England colonies, and neglects the

  southern and the western parts of the New World.

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