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  In contrast to traditional analyses of minority busi-

  ness, the sociological analysis contends that minority

  business ownership is a group-level phenomenon, in that

  it is largely dependent upon social-group resources for

  (5) its development. Specifically, this analysis indicates that

  support networks play a critical role in starting and

  maintaining minority business enterprises by providing

  owners with a range of assistance, from the informal

  encouragement of family members and friends to

  (10) dependable sources of labor and clientele from the

  owner’s ethnic group. Such self-help networks, which

  encourage and support ethnic minority entrepreneurs,

  consist of “primary” institutions, those closest to the

  individual in shaping his or her behavior and beliefs.

  (15) They are characterized by the face-to-face association

  and cooperation of persons united by ties of mutual

  concern. They form an intermediate social level between

  the individual and larger “secondary ” institutions based

  on impersonal relationships. Primary institutions

  (20) comprising the support network include kinship, peer,

  and neighborhood or community subgroups.

  A major function of self-help networks is financial

  support. Most scholars agree that minority business

  owners have depended primarily on family funds and

  (25) ethnic community resources for investment capital .

  Personal savings have been accumulated, often through

  frugal living habits that require sacrifices by the entire

  family and are thus a product of long-term family finan-

  cial behavior. Additional loans and gifts from relatives.

  (30) forthcoming because of group obligation rather than

  narrow investment calculation, have supplemented

  personal savings. Individual entrepreneurs do not neces-

  sarily rely on their kin because they cannot obtain finan-

  cial backing from commercial resources. They may actu-

  (35) ally avoid banks because they assume that commercial

  institutions either cannot comprehend the special needs

  of minority enterprise or charge unreasonably high

  interest rates.

  Within the larger ethnic community, rotating credit

  (40) associations have been used to raise capital. These asso-

  ciations are informal clubs of friends and other trusted

  members of the ethnic group who make regular contri-

  butions to a fund that is given to each contributor in

  rotation. One author estimates that 40 percent of New

  (45)York Chinatown firms established during 1900-1950

  utilized such associations as their initial source of

  capital. However, recent immigrants and third or fourth

  generations of older groups now employ rotating credit

  associations only occasionally to raise investment funds.

  (50) Some groups, like Black Americans, found other means

  of financial support for their entrepreneurial efforts.The

  first Black-operated banks were created in the late nine-

  teenth century as depositories for dues collected from

  fraternal or lodge groups, which themselves had sprung

  (55) from Black churches. Black banks made limited invest-

  ments in other Black enterprises. Irish immigrants in

  American cities organized many building and loan asso-

  ciations to provide capital for home construction and

  purchase. They. in turn, provided work for many Irish

  (60) home-building contractor firms. Other ethnic and

  minority groups followed similar practices in founding

  ethnic-directed financial institutions.

  1. Based on the information in the passage. it would be

  LEAST likely for which of the following persons to be

  part of a self-help network?

  (A) The entrepreneur’s childhood friend

  (B) The entrepreneur’s aunt

  (C) The entrepreneur’s religious leader

  (D) The entrepreneur’s neighbor

  (E) The entrepreneur’s banker

  2. Which of the following illustrates the working of a self-

  help support network, as such networks are described

  in the passage?

  (A) A public high school offers courses in book-keeping

  and accounting as part of its open-enrollment adult

  education program.

  (B) The local government in a small city sets up a

  program that helps teen-agers find summer jobs.

  (C) A major commercial bank offers low-interest loans

  to experienced individuals who hope to establish

  their own businesses.

  (D) A neighborhood-based fraternal organization

  develops a program of on-the-job training for its

  members and their friends.

  (E) A community college offers country residents

  training programs that can lead to certification in a

  variety of technical trades.

  3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage

  about rotating credit associations?

  (A) They were developed exclusively by Chinese

  immigrants.

  (B) They accounted for a significant portion of the

  investment capital used by Chinese immigrants in

  New York in the early twentieth century.

  (C) Third-generation members of an immigrant group

  who started businesses in the 1920’s would have

  been unlikely to rely on them.

  (D) They were frequently joint endeavors by members

  of two or three different ethnic groups.

  (E) Recent immigrants still frequently turn to rotating

  credit associations instead of banks for investment

  capital.

  4. The passage best supports which of the following

  statements?

  (A) A minority entrepreneur who had no assistance from

  family members would not be able to start a

  business.

  (B) Self-help networks have been effective in helping

  entrepreneurs primarily in the last 50 years.

  (C) Minority groups have developed a range of

  alternatives to standard financing of business

  ventures.

  (D) The financial institutions founded by various ethnic

  groups owe their success to their unique formal

  organization.

  (E) Successful minority-owned businesses succeed

  primarily because of the personal strengths of their

  founders.

  5. Which of the following best describes the organization

  of the second paragraph?

  (A) An argument is delineated, followed by a

  counterargument.

  (B) An assertion is made and several examples are

  provided to illustrate it.

  (C) A situation is described and its historical

  background is then outlined.

  (D) An example of a phenomenon is given and is then

  used as a basis for general conclusions.

  (E) A group of parallel incidents is described and the

  distinctions among the incidents are then clarified.

  6. According to the passage, once a minority-owned

  business is established, self-help networks contribute

  which of the following to that business?

  (A) Information regarding possible expansion of the

  business into nearby communities

  (B) Encouragement of a business climate that is nearly

  free of direct competition

  (C) Opportunities for the business owner to reinvest

  profits in other minority-owned businesses

  (D) Contact with people who are likely to be customers

  of the new business

  (E) Contact with minority entrepreneurs who are

  members of other ethnic groups

  7. It can be inferred from the passage that traditional

  analyses of minority business would be LEAST likely

  to do which of the following?

  (A) Examine businesses primarily in their social

  contexts

  (B) Focus on current, rather than historical, examples

  of business enterprises

  (C) Stress common experiences of individual

  entrepreneurs in starting businesses

  (D) Focus on the maintenance of businesses, rather

  than means of starting them

  (E) Focus on the role of individual entrepreneurs in

  starting a business

  8. Which of the following can be inferred from the

  passage about the Irish building and loan

  associations mentioned in the last paragraph?

  (A) They were started by third-or fourth-generation

  immigrants.

  (B) They originated as offshoots of church-related

  groups.

  (C) They frequently helped Irish entrepreneurs to

  finance business not connected with construction.

  (D) They contributed to the employment of many Irish

  construction workers.

  (E) They provided assistance for construction businesses

  owned by members of other ethnic groups.

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