9. Marissa uses which of the following techniques in attempting to refute Walter’s argument?
(A) Attacking his assumption that the price of an artwork indicates its worth
(B) Raising a point that would undermine one of the claims on which his conclusion is based
(C) Questioning his claim that a perfect copy of a work of art would be visually indistinguishable from the original
(D) Giving reason to believe that Walter is unable to judge the quality of a work of art because of his inadequate understanding of the history of art
(E) Proposing alternative criteria for determining whether two works of art are visually indistinguishable
10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—a noninvasive diagnostic procedure—can be used to identify blockages in the coronary arteries. In contrast to angiograms—the invasive procedure customarily used—MRI’s pose no risk to patients. Thus, to guarantee patient safety in the attempt to diagnose arterial blockages, MRI’s should replace angiograms in all attempts at diagnosing coronary blockages.
Which of the following, if true, would most support the recommendation above?
(A) Angiograms can be used to diagnose conditions other than blockages in arteries.
(B) MRI’s were designed primarily in order to diagnose blockages in the coronary arteries.
(C) Angiograms reveal more information about the nature of a blockage than an MRI can.
(D) An MRI is just as likely as an angiogram to identify an arterial blockage.
(E) Some patients for whom an angiogram presents no risk are unwilling to undergo an MRI.
11. Naturally occurring chemicals cannot be newly patented once their structures have been published. Before a naturally occurring chemical compound can be used as a drug, however, it must be put through the same rigorous testing program as any synthetic compound, culminating in a published report detailing the chemical’s structure and observed effects.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must also be true on the basis of them?
(A) Any naturally occurring chemical can be reproduced synthetically once its structure is known.
(B) Synthetically produced chemical compounds cannot be patented unless their chemical structures are made public.
(C) If proven no less effective, naturally occurring chemicals are to be preferred to synthetic compounds for use in drugs.
(D) Once a naturally occurring compound has been approved for use as a drug, it can no longer be newly patented.
(E) A naturally occurring chemical cannot be patented unless its effectiveness as a drug has been rigorously established.
12. A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed alcohol should not drive until they can do so safely. In a hospital study, however, subjects questioned immediately after they consumed alcohol underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability. This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement’s advice.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument above?
(A) Many people, if they plan to drink alcohol, make arrangements beforehand for a nondrinker to drive them home.
(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.
(C) Some people refrain from drinking if they will have to drive to get home afterward.
(D) The subjects in the hospital study were also questioned about the time necessary to regain abilities that do not play an important role in driving safely.
(E) Awareness of the public-service advertisement is higher among the general population than it was among the subjects in the hospital study.
13. Investigator: XYZ Coins has misled its clients by promoting some coins as “extremely rare” when in fact those coins are relatively common and readily available.
XYZ agent: That is ridiculous. XYZ Coins is one of the largest coin dealers in the world. We authenticate the coins we sell through a nationally recognized firm and operate a licensed coin dealership.
The XYZ agent’s reply is most vulnerable to the criticism that it
(A) exaggerates the investigator’s a claims in order to make them appear absurd
(B) accuses the investigator of bias but presents no evidence to support that accusation
(C) fails to establish that other coin dealers do not also authenticate the coins those dealers sell
(D) lists strengths of XYZ Coins while failing to address the investigator’s charge
(E) provides no definition for the inherently vague phrase “extremely rare”
14. Both Writewell and Express provide round-the-clock telephone assistance to any customer who uses their word-processing software. Since customers only call the hot lines when they find the software difficult to use, and the Writewell hot line receives four times as many calls as the Express hot line, Writewell’s word-processing software must be more difficult to use than Express’s.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?
(A) Calls to the Express hot line are almost twice as long, on average, as are calls to the Writewell hot line.
(B) Express has three times the number of word-processing software customers that Writewell has.
(C) Express receives twice as many letters of complaint about its word-processing software as Writewell receives about its word-processing software.
(D) The number of calls received by each of the two hot lines has been gradually increasing.
(E) The Writewell hot-line number is more widely publicized than the Express hot-line number.
15. Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.
Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?
(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.
16. Many consumers are concerned about the ecological effects of wasteful packaging. This concern probably explains why stores have been quick to stock new cleaning products that have been produced in a concentrated form. The concentrated form is packaged in smaller containers that use less plastic and require less transportation space.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the explanation offered above?
(A) Few consumers believe that containers of concentrated cleaning products are merely small packages of regular cleaning products.
(B) The containers in which concentrated cleaning products are packaged are no harder to recycle than those in which regular cleaning products are packaged.
(C) Those concentrated cleaning products that are intended to be used diluted have clear instructions for dilution printed on their labels.
(D) The smaller containers of concentrated cleaning products enable supermarkets and drugstores to increase their revenues from a given shelf space.
(E) Consumer pressure has led to the elimination of wasteful cardboard packaging that was used for compact discs.