In response to a coincidence between A andB, the author/argument recommends…
The recommendation endorsed in thisargument is that…
In an attempt to…, … claims/suggest that…
The author draws the conclusion of… on thebasis of…
In this argument, the author puts forwardthe conclusion that….
This argument is solely based on the surveyof…, which is inadequate to draw a conclusion that…
In this argument, the author makes a fewdoubtful assumptions that lead to a premature conclusion that…
The conclusion is seriously in flaw in thefollowing … aspects.
For a couple of reasons, the argument isnot sound/convincing
The author concludes that B was responsiblefor A merely because A occurred after B. Without a thorough survey of therelationship between A and B, this conclusion could be doubtful. Thecoincidence/correlation between A and B cannot establish a causal relationshipsuggesting that A results in B. Some other reasons that can explain the occurrenceof A may exist simultaneously, such as…..Thus, to accomplish a soundconclusion, the author has to consider more factors involved in the situation.
Wrong Direction: the direction between causeand effect is reversed
In the argument above, A and B are assumedto be mutually exclusive. However, no evidence proves that A and B cannot bejointed together to make a better choice.
The argument puts forward a faulty/falselyanalogy between… and…. However analogies drawn between the two situations arehighly suspect because differences between A and B obviously outweigh thesimilarities, therefore making the analogy much less valid. For instance, in A,…, while in B, …
The author argues that ….. However thisclaim actually falls into a serious flaw because The success …of the past does not guarantee the applicability in the future.. The author assumes without justification that the conditions haveremained the same at different times/locations. Therefore, it is unsound to declare/claim/concludethat…
Is… the only difference relevant to…?
The author does not clarify the informationof the poll such as who was studied in the survey, and how the survey wasconducted. Lacking information will make it impossible to access a validresults and assertion. To reach a reasonable conclusion, key information aboutthe survey/poll /research should be provided and analyzed.
The statistics/evidence A from only a fewrecent years/samples is not necessarily a good indicator of…. The sample is toosmall/not representative enough to support such a hasty generalization. Theauthor should either show that A1 is representative of all A or provide moresamples to strengthen/defend/justify the conclusion.
The conclusion depends on an arbitraryassumption that… However no further evidence is stated in the argument tosupport this assumption.
In sum, the conclusion about… cannot bereasonably drawn form the information in the argument. The survey’s accuracyand efficiency are not adequate in explaining the phenomenon.
To make the argument logically acceptable,the author may…
In conclusion, the author’s reasoning issomewhat persuasive.
Appeal to Pity: the reader is persuaded toaGREe by sympathy 以同情获取支持和说服力
Popularity: a proposition is argued to betrue because it is widely held to be true 认为大众观点一定对
Attacking the Person: 人身攻击
(1) the person's character is attacked
(2) the person's circumstances are noted
(3) the person does not practise what is preached
Accident: a generalization is applied whencircumstances suggest that there should be an exception
Illicit Major: the predicate of theconclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention somecases of the term in the predicate
Illicit Minor: the subject of the conclusion talks about all of something, butthe premises only mention some cases of the term in the subject
Failure to Elucidate(说明) (The definition is more difficult to understand than theword or
concept being defined)
Circular Definition (The definition includesthe term being defined as a part of the definition)